Volume 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2017)                   Ann. Appl. Sport Sci 2017, 5(3): 39-47 | Back to browse issues page
1- PhD University of Thessaly/DPESS, Triakala, Karies, Greece , spats@pe.uth.gr
2- MD&PhD Alexandre Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
3- PhD Aristotle Univeristy of Thessaloniki/DPESS, Thessaloniki, Greece
4- MSc University of Thessaly/DPESS, Triakala, Karies, Greece
5- PhD University of Thessaly/DPESS, Triakala, Karies, Greece
Abstract:   (1840 Views)
Objectives. The purpose of the study was to examine possible correlations and differences of personality and trait anxiety between male and female volleyball players.
Methods. The sample consisted of 79 Division A & C volleyball athletes (35 men and 44 women). Personality factors were investigated with the use of IPIP (International Personality Item Pool), whereas for trait anxiety the STAI - X2 (State - Trait Anxiety Inventory) questionnaire was used.
Results. Statistically important differences were noticed between male and female volleyball players regarding the factors of extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability. In the remainder examined factors, that is, trait anxiety, consciousness and intellectual ability-imagination, no statistically important differences were noticed. A differentiation was also noticed regarding the relationship of factors when gender was selected as a criterion.
Conclusion. The results reveal that male athletes were influenced to a different degree on personality factors as compared to female athletes. Further research is needed to investigate differences between the two genders by using samples from other team and individual sports.
Full-Text [PDF 371 kb]   (311 Downloads)    
• In everyday volleyball coaching women players are more sociable but less emotionally stable, so the coach should focus more on developing a good climate and cohesion of the team.
• In male volleyball teams coaches should focus more on task and maximization of individual performance and less on social context.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Psychology and its Related Branches
Received: 2017/05/11 | Accepted: 2017/08/14 | Published: 2017/08/17

1. Tooby J, Cosmides L. On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: The role of genetics and adaptation. Journal of Personality. 1990; 58: 17-67. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1990.tb00907.x] [PMID]
2. Costa PTJr, McCrae RR. Stability and change in personality assessment: the revised NEO Personality Inventory in the year 2000. Journal of Personality Assessment. 1997; 68(1): 86-94. [DOI:10.1207/s15327752jpa6801_7] [PMID]
3. McAdams DP. What do we know when we know a person? Journal of Personality. 1995; 63:365-396. [DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1995.tb00500.x]
4. McCrae RR, Costa PTJr. Personality trait structure as a human universal. American Psychologist. 1997; 52: 509-516. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.52.5.509]
5. Pervin LA. Persönlichkeitstheorien. München: Ernst Reinhardt Verlag; 1993.
6. Plomin R. The role of inheritance in behavior. Science. 1990; 248: 183-188. [DOI:10.1126/science.2183351] [PMID]
7. Norman WT. Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 1963; 66: 574-583. [DOI:10.1037/h0040291] [PMID]
8. Digman JM. Higher order factors of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1997; 73: 1246-1256. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.73.6.1246] [PMID]
9. Saucier G, Georgiades S, Tsaousis I, Goldberg RL. The Factor Structure of Greek Personality Adjectives. Journal of Personality And Social Psychology. 2005; 88(5). [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.88.5.856] [PMID]
10. Tsaousis I, Kerpelis P. The Traits Personality Questionnaire 5 (TPQue5): The psychometric evaluation of a shortened version. European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 2004; 20(3): 180-191. [DOI:10.1027/1015-5759.20.3.180]
11. Becker P, Kupsch M. The four-plus-X factor model for the description of normal and disordered personality as an alternative to the five-factor model: A test of two models. Trierer Psychologische Berichte. 2002; Band 29, Heft 6.
12. Block J. A contrarian view of the five-factor approach to personality description. Psychological Bulletin. 1995; 117: 187-215. [DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.117.2.187] [PMID]
13. Hofstee WKB, De Raad B, Goldberg LR. Integration of the Big Five and circumplex approaches to trait structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1992; 63: 146-163. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.63.1.146] [PMID]
14. Goldberg LR. An alternative description of personality: The Big-Five factor structure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1990; 59: 1216-1229. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.59.6.1216] [PMID]
15. Plomin R, Daniels D. Why are children in the same family so different from one another? Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 1987; 10: 1-60. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00056272 [DOI:10.1017/S0140525X00055941]
16. Buss DM. Sex differences in human mating: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 1989; 12: 1-49. [DOI:10.1017/S0140525X00023992]
17. Watson D, Weise D, Vaidya J, Tellegen A. The two general activation systems of affect: Structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1999; 76: 820-838. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.76.5.820]
18. Ahmed MM, Galal El-Din, Nagwa Hassan Ali, Hamdy Hamed Swelim, Khalda Said Amr, and Laila Kamal El-Din Effat. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene polymorphism in offenders and psychiatric patients in an Egyptian Study. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS). 2014;9(2): 38-42. [DOI:10.9790/3008-09273842]
19. Jacob CP, Müller J, Schmidt M, Hohenberger K, Gutknecht L, Reif A, Schmidtke A, Mössner R, Lesch PK. Cluster B Personality Disorders are Associated with Allelic Variation of Monoamine Oxidase A Activity. 2005; Available from: Neuropsychopharmacology, doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300737. [DOI:10.1038/sj.npp.1300737]
20. Montag C. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Personality. Advances in Biology. 2014; Article ID 719723. doi:10.1155/2014/719723. [DOI:10.1155/2014/719723]
21. Ashton MC, Lee K, Perugini M, Szarota P, De Vries RE, Di Blas L. A six – factor structure of personality-descriptive adjectives: Solutions from psycholexical studies in seven languages. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2004; 86: 356-366. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.86.2.356] [PMID]
22. Eysenk HJ, Nias DK, Cox DN. Sport and personality. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy. 1982; 4: 1-56. [DOI:10.1016/0146-6402(82)90004-2]
23. Vealey RS. Personality and Sport Behavior. In: Horn T, editor. Advances in Sport Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2002. 2nd edition: pp. 43-82.
24. Digman JM. Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology. 1990; 41: 417-440. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.ps.41.020190.002221]
25. Kane JE. Persons, Situations and Performance. In: Glengross DJ, editor. Psychology and Sport. Sydney: McGraw Hill; 1978.
26. Morgan WP. Trait psychology controversy. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1980; 51: 50-76. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1980.10609275] [PMID]
27. Garland JK, Barry JR. Personality and leader behaviors in collegiate football: a multidimensional approach to performances. Journal of Research in Personality. 1990; 24:355-370. [DOI:10.1016/0092-6566(90)90026-3]
28. Piedmont RL, Hill DC, Blanco S. Predicting athletic performance using the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences. 1999; 27: 769-777. [DOI:10.1016/S0191-8869(98)00280-3]
29. Folikins CH, Sime WE. Physical fitness training and mental health. American Psychologist. 1981; 36(4): 373-389. [DOI:10.1037/0003-066X.36.4.373]
30. Gruber JJ. Physical activity and self– esteem development in children: A meta – analysis. American Academy of Physical Education Papers. 1986; 19: 30-48.
31. Sonstroem RJ. Exercise and self – esteem. In: Dishmann RK, editor. Exercise adherence: Its impact on public health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1984. pp. 125-153. [DOI:10.1249/00003677-198401000-00007]
32. Sonstroem RJ, Morgan WP. Exercise and self – esteem.: Rationale and Model. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1989; 21(3): 329-337. [DOI:10.1249/00005768-198906000-00018] [PMID]
33. Martens R, Gill DL. State anxiety among successful and unsuccessful competitors who differ in competitive trait anxiety. Research Quarterly. 1976; 47: 698-708. [PMID]
34. Maynard IW, Hemmings B, Warwick-Evans L. The effects of a somatic intervention strategy on competitive state anxiety and performance in semiprofessional soccer players. The Sport Psychologist. 1995; 9: 51-64. [DOI:10.1123/tsp.9.1.51]
35. Martens R, Vealey RS, Burton, D. Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 1990.
36. Yan Lan L, Gill DL. The relationships among self-efficacy, stress responses, and a cognitive feedback manipulation. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1984; 6: 227-238. [DOI:10.1123/jsp.6.2.227]
37. Krane V, Williams J, Feltz D. Path analysis examining relationships among competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, state confidence, performance expectations, and golf performance. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1992; 15: 279-295.
38. Samulski D. Wie motivieren sich Leistungssportler selbst? In Münster: Leistungspsychologie. 1987; 1: 7 – 11.
39. Goldberg LR. The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological assessment. 1992;4:1- 26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.26. [DOI:10.1037/1040-3590.4.1.26]
40. International Personality Item Pool (2001). A Scientific Collaboratory for the Development of Advanced Measures of Personality Traits and Other Individual Differences. Available from: http://ipip.ori.org/. Internet Website.
41. Goldberg LR. A broad-bandwidth, public domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models. In: Mervielde I, Deary I, De Fruyt F, Ostendorf F, editors. Personality Psychology in Europe. 1999;Vol. 7: 7-28.
42. John OP, Srivastava S. The Big Five trait taxonomy: History, measurement, and theoretical perspective. In: Pervin LA, John OP, editors. Handbook of personality: Theory and research. New York: Guilford Press; 1999. 2nd edn, pp. 102139.
43. Tsaousis I, Nikolaou I. The Stability of the Five -Factor Model of Personality in Personnel Selection and Assessment. International Journal of Selection and Assessment. 2001; 9: 290-301. [DOI:10.1111/1468-2389.00181]
44. Laux L, Glanzmann P, Schaffner P, Spielberger CD. State-Trait Angstinventar (STAI). Wien: Psychologisches Institut; 1981.
45. Kakkos B, Ekkekakis P, Zervas I. Psychometric proportions of state-trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI) in Greek population. SportsPsychology. 1991;5: 3-34. [in Greek].
46. Liakos A, Giannitsi S. Reliability and Validity of the modified Spielberger\'s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in Greek population. Egefalos. 1984; 21: 71-76.
47. Donnellan MB, Lucas RE. Age Differences in the Big Five Across the Life Span: Evidence from Two National Samples. Psychology and Aging. 2008; 23(3): 558–566. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0012897. [DOI:10.1037/a0012897]
48. Gurtman MB. Exploring Personality with the Interpersonal Circumplex. Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 2009; 3: 601-619. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00172.x [DOI:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00172.x]
49. Weisberg YJ, DeYoung CG, Hirsh JB. Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five. Frontiers in Psychology. 2011; 2: 178. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00178. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00178]
50. McKelvie SJ, Lemieux P, Stout D. Extraversion and Neuroticism in Contact Athletes, No Contact Athletes and Non-athletes: A Research Note. Athletic Insight. 2003; 5: 3.
51. Markus HR, Kitayama S. Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review. 1991; 98(2): 224-253. [DOI:10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224]
52. Schmitt DP, Realo A, Voracek M, Allik J. Why can\'t a man be more like a woman? Sex differences in Big Five personality traits across 55 cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2008; 94(1): 168-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.168. [DOI:10.1037/0022-3514.94.1.168]
53. Fayombo G. The Relationship between Personality Traits and Psychological Resilience among the Caribbean Adolescents. International Journal of Psychological Studies. 2010; 2(2):105-116. www.ccsenet.org/ijps [DOI:10.5539/ijps.v2n2p105]