Volume 8 - Autumn Supplementary                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2020, 8 - Autumn Supplementary: 0-0 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Da Costa D, Banagalee V, Naidoo R. Exogenous Ketone Supplement Ingestion And Submaximal Exercise Response in Trained, Male Cyclists: A Randomised, Double-blind Study. Ann Appl Sport Sci 2020; 8 (S1)
URL: http://aassjournal.com/article-1-890-en.html
1- College of Health Sciences, Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
2- College of Health Sciences, Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
3- College of Health Sciences, Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa , naidoor3@ukzn.ac.za
Abstract:   (2152 Views)
Background. The acute ingestion of ketone body supplements can improve exercise responses such as oxygen consumption and blood lactate. Additionally, ketone body supplements show increases in circulating βhb concentration, matching those of someone in a state of nutritional ketosis. Studies testing ketone body supplements have reported different results in exercise response and varying gastrointestinal discomfort.
Objectives. This study aimed to compare the effects of exogenous ketone supplements on submaximal exercise response in a group of trained male cyclists.
Methods. A randomized, double-blind study was conducted. Forty-four males were randomly assigned to one of four supplement groups, i.e., high ketone (HKET) (10g βhb); low ketone (LKET) (4g βhb); carbohydrate (CHO); or placebo (PLA). Oxygen consumption and blood lactate were measured as markers of exercise response and blood βhb as a marker for ketosis, during a submaximal cycle protocol (30 min at 60% VO2max).
Results. Two of the three supplements increased oxygen consumption (CHO: p<0.0005; and HKET: p=0.015). The HKET group experienced an increase in maximal blood lactate (P = 0.010) and a decrease in lactate threshold (d=0.93). Additionally, the HKET group showed the largest increase in circulating βhb concentration (P = 0.004) 30 minutes following ingestion. The respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, and plasma glucose were not affected.
Conclusion. Although the exogenous ketone supplements were able to induce a mild state of ketosis (>0.5 mmol/L),  no positive effect on exercise response was shown.
Full-Text [PDF 522 kb]   (553 Downloads)    
  • Consider the effects of βhb supplements.
  • Consumer awareness can be improved regarding the efficacy and ingredients in commercial ketone supplements.
  • 10g βhb showed no benefit to exercise.
  • Caution should be taken when ingesting ketone body supplements due to the lack of knowledge on long term effects.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2020/06/6 | Accepted: 2020/08/1

1. Pinckaers PJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Bailey D, van Loon LJ. Ketone Bodies and Exercise Performance: The Next Magic Bullet or Merely Hype? Sports Med. 2017;47(3):383-391. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-016-0577-y] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Rodger S, Plews D, P. L, Driller M. Oral B-hydroxybutyrate salt fails to improve 4-minute cycling performance following submaximal exercise. J Sci Cycl. 2017;6(1):26-31.
3. Harvey C, Schofield GM, Williden M. The use of nutritional supplements to induce ketosis and reduce symptoms associated with keto-induction: a narrative review. PeerJ. 2018;6:e4488. [DOI:10.7717/peerj.4488] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Niknamian S. Nutritional ketosis condition and specific ketogenic diet, may benefit cancer patients as an alternative treatment by sudden change in the metabolic state of cancer cells. Int J Biochem Physiol. 2016;1(1). [DOI:10.23880/IJBP-16000107]
5. Clarke K, Cox P. Ketone bodies and ketone body esters for maintaining or improving muscle power output. United State Patent Applicat. 2015.
6. Holdsworth DA, Cox PJ, Kirk T, Stradling H, Impey SG, Clarke K. A Ketone Ester Drink Increases Postexercise Muscle Glycogen Synthesis in Humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49(9):1789-1795. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001292] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Stubbs BJ, Cox PJ, Evans RD, Santer P, Miller JJ, Faull OK, et al. On the Metabolism of Exogenous Ketones in Humans. Front Physiol. 2017;8:848. [DOI:10.3389/fphys.2017.00848] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Egan B, D'Agostino DP. Fueling Performance: Ketones Enter the Mix. Cell Metab. 2016;24(3):373-375. [DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2016.08.021] [PMID]
9. Cox PJ, Kirk T, Ashmore T, Willerton K, Evans R, Smith A, et al. Nutritional Ketosis Alters Fuel Preference and Thereby Endurance Performance in Athletes. Cell Metab. 2016;24(2):256-268. [DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2016.07.010] [PMID]
10. Ramos-Jimenez A, Hernandez-Torres RP, Torres-Duran PV, Romero-Gonzalez J, Mascher D, Posadas-Romero C, et al. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance. Clin Med Circ Respirat Pulm Med. 2008;2:1-9. [DOI:10.4137/CCRPM.S449] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Cox PJ, Clarke K. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism. Extrem Physiol Med. 2014;3:17. [DOI:10.1186/2046-7648-3-17] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Evans M, McSwiney FT, Brady AJ, Egan B. No Benefit of Ingestion of a Ketone Monoester Supplement on 10-km Running Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019;51(12):2506-2515. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002065] [PMID]
13. Stubbs BJ, Cox PJ, Kirk T, Evans RD, Clarke K. Gastrointestinal Effects of Exogenous Ketone Drinks are Infrequent, Mild and Vary According to Ketone Compound and Dose. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2019:1-23. [DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.2019-0014] [PMID]
14. Vandoorne T, De Smet S, Ramaekers M, Van Thienen R, De Bock K, Clarke K, et al. Intake of a Ketone Ester Drink during Recovery from Exercise Promotes mTORC1 Signaling but Not Glycogen Resynthesis in Human Muscle. Front Physiol. 2017;8:310. [DOI:10.3389/fphys.2017.00310] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Leckey JJ, Ross ML, Quod M, Hawley JA, Burke LM. Ketone Diester Ingestion Impairs Time-Trial Performance in Professional Cyclists. Front Physiol. 2017;8:806. [DOI:10.3389/fphys.2017.00806] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Fischer T, Och U, Klawon I, Och T, Gruneberg M, Fobker M, et al. Effect of a Sodium and Calcium DL-beta-Hydroxybutyrate Salt in Healthy Adults. J Nutr Metab. 2018;2018:9812806. [DOI:10.1155/2018/9812806] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Hagberg JM, Mullin JP, Giese MD, Spitznagel E. Effect of pedaling rate on submaximal exercise responses of competitive cyclists. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1981;51(2):447-451. [DOI:10.1152/jappl.1981.51.2.447] [PMID]
18. Lucia A, Hoyos J, Perez M, Santalla A, Chicharro JL. Inverse relationship between VO2max and economy/efficiency in world-class cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(12):2079-2084. [DOI:10.1097/00005768-200212000-00032] [PMID]
19. Tanner R, Gore C. Physiological tests for elite athletes.2013. 546 p.
20. Czuba M, Zajac A, Cholewa J, Poprzecki S, Waskiewicz Z, Mikotajec K. Lactate Threshold (D-Max Method) and Maximal Lactate Steady State in Cyclists. J Human Kinetic. 2009;21:49-56. [DOI:10.2478/v10078-09-0006-5]
21. Evans M, Patchett E, Nally R, Kearns R, Larney M, Egan B. Effect of acute ingestion of beta-hydroxybutyrate salts on the response to graded exercise in trained cyclists. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(3):376-386. [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2017.1421711] [PMID]

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2023 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb