year 5, Issue 2 (Summer 2017)  

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Abstract (7110 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1821 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • Among factors to prevent obesity and related diseases such as diabetes and fatty liver, exercise training is a well-accepted as a viable option. However, due to the effect of exercise training on fat tissue and obesity, and reduction in adipokines associated with insulin resistance such as leptin, retinol-binding protein 4, resistin and others, as well as increases in adiponectin levels with exercise training, study of the effects of exercise training on Nrg4 are warranted and could create a broad new approach in relation to the prevention of fatty liver, obesity and insulin resistance treatment.

Abstract (9597 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1989 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • The majority of the studies evaluating the efficacy of HRV measurements in athlete populations have focused on male endurance athletes.
  • This pilot study has identified that HRV can be sensitive enough to detect changes in elite female alpine racer’s training status, specifically in the areas functional overreach and recovery.

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• Resistance training regardless of volume of training can improved serum insulin levels and insulin resistance index in both normal and insulin resistance conditions, and these improvements accompanied by decline of serum myonectin levels.
• It seems that improvement of metabolic condition would occur even by low volume of resistance training.

Abstract (8869 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (2723 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • Vitamin C supplementation can be prevented the increase in lactate levels and free radical production.
  • Supplementation with vitamin C  can be prevented the increase in free radical production.

Abstract (9582 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (2147 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) resulted in an improvement in glucose level and insulin resistance in obese participants, and this improvement was accompanied by increased omentin-1 concentrations.
  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise intervention that may bring about similar benefits to other type of exercise.

Abstract (9756 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1605 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• The results obtained in this study provide a clearer insight into inter-positional and intra-positional differences in somatotype categories of young female volleyball players:
a) The obtained intra-positional differences between less efficient and more efficient YFVP in proportions of each somatotype category indicate that with the increase of efficacy at all positions in volleyball a trend toward ectomorphy can be noticed.
b) Considering a high level of innateness of that somatotype component in the process of talent identification for volleyball, suitable body build should also be one of the important criteria.
c) In the training process great attention should also be paid to the reduction of subcutaneous fat tissue.
d) Small inter-positional differences in frequency of each somatotype category indicate a previous homogeneity of samples in terms of body build in the first phases of selection.
e) Therefore, in the selection process for specific positions body build should not be the primary selection criterion.
f) The middle hitter position is certainly the exception, which requires specific body build predominated by the ectomorph somatotype component as a necessary precondition for success.
• Using the results presented here, volleyball coaches will be able to better detect talents for volleyball, and also to assign the most appropriate player positions according to their body build.

Abstract (9766 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1771 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • Both aerobic and resistance training can similarly increase FNDC5 gene expression in the liver tissue, which could be an explanation for the way they play a role in the process of browning of white fat, therefore reducing the fat in the liver tissue and improving the condition.

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  • The findings of maximum speed occurring first in rod translation, thereafter in rod rotation and finally in line hauling movement can be considered movement adaptations to optimize line speed and thereby distance and efficiency in fly casting.
  • These results support the principle that the rotation of the rod and the hauling of the line should occur relatively late in each cast sequence, i.e., after an initial translation of the rod in the movement direction.
  • The results also indicate that the coordination of rod and hauling movements should be adapted to line length, where increased rod and line hauling speed is used for longer lines.
  • In general, this suggests that casting movements need to be changeable and adjusted to current circumstances to optimize rod and line movements.

Abstract (7822 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1471 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• It is recommended that instructors and coaches consider factors such as age, the learner’s skill level, and the nature of the skill to provide instruction for developing motor skills, and according to the positive effects of the mentioned practice methods, use them in their practice schedules.

Abstract (6565 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1754 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• Injecting 6-OHDA unilaterally into the MFB can be considered a good model of PD in rats.
• Voluntary exercise can improve the motor function in a 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease.
• Then, voluntary exercise can be helpful in reducing PD patients’ motor deficits.

Abstract (8972 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (3742 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The use of new marketing tools will allow professional sports federations to spend less on costs, carry out activities related to the development of technology infrastructure and establish more effective communication with their staff, market, suppliers, and customers through the site and electronic devices.
  • The use of electronic marketing technologies will increase the income generation of professional sports federations significantly and this will reduce their dependence on the general funds supplied by the government.
  • Performing e-marketing activities in professional sports federations will create a culture of using the Internet and a positive culture in the use of e-services in the sports industry; it will also improve the specific brand value and brand image of the mentioned federations.

Abstract (10575 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (2848 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • This finding should encourage sport teams to strengthen ties with their fans to ensure that they are less vulnerable to changes in their local communities and to actions by competitors.
  • It is important for a professional sports team’s management to understand fans’ interest in social issues and fans’ responses to various CSR programs.
  • Regarding the valid and reliable instrument for measuring social responsibility in sport industry, it is suggested for sport managers and marketers to employ this tool to assess and audit social responsibility performance of sport teams and clubs for improve performance and development of strategies.

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