year 11, Issue 3 (Autumn 2023)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2023, 11(3): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Al-Sababha K M H. The Effect of Using the Six Thinking Hats Strategy for Developing Creative Thinking and the Learning of Some Gymnastic Skills among Primary School Students. Ann Appl Sport Sci 2023; 11 (3)
Department of Physical Education, College of Education, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia ,
Abstract:   (1243 Views)
Background. Educators have sought to develop new teaching methods and strategies with an emphasis on learners who play major roles. This is achieved by preparing different and active situations by increasing motivation and developing their thinking.
Objectives. The purpose of the study was to design a program using the six thinking hats strategy and to identify its effects on creative thinking and some of the gymnastic skills, namely handstands (HS), forward rolls (FR), and backward rolls (BR) of primary school students.
Methods. The researchers used the experimental method with 50 students who were randomly divided into two groups, namely an experimental group (n = 25, age = 11.24 ± 0.60 years, height = 143.24 ± 2.29 cm, weight = 42.44 ± 2.29 kg, IQ = 18.36 ± 0.64 scores) and a control group (n = 25, age = 11.24 ± 0.66 years, height = 143.80 ± 3.62 cm, weight = 42.36 ± 2.56 kg, IQ = 18.48 ± 0.59 score). The homogeneity between the two groups was calculated, and the results revealed that there were no differences between the two samples. Concerning the research variables, the educational program was applied twice per week for eight weeks.
Results. The proposed education program using the six thinking hats strategy had a more positive effect on the development of creative thinking and some of the gymnastic skills being researched for primary school students than did the traditional program, with statistically significant differences in the creative thinking scale of 17.04%. The gymnastic skills that were studied, namely handstands (HS), frontward rolls (FR), and backward rolls (BR) had a relative difference of 74.47 - 108.48%, P<0.005. The differences in the improvement rates for all the variables were in favor of the experimental group.
Conclusion. Therefore, the proposed educational program using the six thinking hats strategy had a positive effect on the creative thinking and gymnastic skills of the primary school pupils, which resulted in a statistically significant difference in the subsequent tests in favor of the experimental group.
Full-Text [PDF 815 kb]   (643 Downloads)    
• Based on the results of the research, the researchers recommend implementing the program, including the six thinking hats strategy to develop students’ creative thinking and gymnastic skills.
• It is also necessary to include pre-service physical education teacher-preparation programs and training in the use of the six thinking hats strategy for developing students’ creative thinking and gymnastic skills.
• Directing those involved in the physical education sector to hold courses for physical education teachers to train them to use the six thinking hats strategy to develop innovative thinking and the gymnastic skills of primary school students will require further research and studies to design programs using the six thinking hats strategy to determine its efficacy in developing other motor skills, in addition to diverse activities and variables.
• Conducting more research and studies of the design and use of motor dexterity programs to determine their effectiveness in the learning and development of other motor skills and abilities, as well as possible activities and variables, is recommended in the future.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Physical Education Learning
Received: 2023/03/5 | Accepted: 2023/05/2

1. 1. Ghazi Lafta H, Ali Jabbar H, Dhurgham ANA-J. The effect of the swom strategy on learning some artistic gymnastics skills for students. ResearchJet Journal of Analysis and Inventions. 2022;3(04):108-23.
2. Fisher R. Teaching children to think. 2 ed: Nelson Thornes; 2005. 248 p.
3. Kaufman JC, Beghetto RA. Beyond big and little: The four c model of creativity. Review of General Psychology. 2009;13:1-12. [DOI:10.1037/a0013688]
4. Hang NTT, Hien LT, Van Tinh L. Training creative thinking for primary school students with the approach of learning through playing. International Journal of Education and Social Science Research 2022;5(3):230-6. [DOI:10.37500/IJESSR.2022.5316]
5. Starko AJ. Creativity in the classroom: Schools of curious delight. 7th ed: Routledge; 2022. [DOI:10.4324/9781003105640]
6. Timmering L, Snoek M, Dietze A, editors. Identifying teacher quality: Structuring elements of teacher quality. ATEE 2009 Annual Conference Proceedings; 2009.
7. Cotton K. Teaching thinking skills: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, School Improvement Program; 1991.
8. Ziadat AH, Al Ziyadat MT. The Effectiveness of Training Program Based on the Six Hats Model in Developing Creative Thinking Skills and Academic Achievements in the Arabic Language Course for Gifted and Talented Jordanian Students. International Education Studies. 2016;9(6):150-7. [DOI:10.5539/ies.v9n6p150]
9. Kovač M, Sember V, Pajek M. Implementation of the Gymnastics Curriculum in the First Three-year Cycle of the Primary School in Slovenia. Science of Gymnastics Journal. 2020;12(3):299-312. [DOI:10.52165/sgj.12.3.299-312]
10. Delas Kalinski S, Miletic D, Bozanic A. Gender-based progression and acquisition of gymnastic skills in physical education. Croatian Journal of Education: Hrvatski časopis za odgoj i obrazovanje. 2011;13(3):4-24.
11. Silverman S. Student Characteristics, Practice, and Achievement in Physical Education. The Journal of Educational Research. 1993;87(1):54-61. [DOI:10.1080/00220671.1993.9941166]
12. Goldberger M, Gerney P. Effects of Learner Use of Practice Time on Skill Acquisition of Fifth Grade Children. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 1990;10(1):84-95. [DOI:10.1123/jtpe.10.1.84]
13. Forster J. Creativity: The hub of real achievement. Gifted Education International. 2012;28(3):281-99. [DOI:10.1177/0261429411435108]
14. Kaur M. Six thinking hats: An instructional strategy for developing creative thinking. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences. 2017;7(10):520-8. [DOI:10.5958/0975-6884.2017.00038.X]
15. Kivunja C. Using De Bono's six thinking hats model to teach critical thinking and problem solving skills essential for success in the 21st century economy. Creative Education. 2015;6(3):380-91. [DOI:10.4236/ce.2015.63037]
16. Alshatti HAI. The Effectiveness of Using Six Hats Strategy to Improve Reading Comprehension for the Eighth Grade Students in Communication Skills Book in Jordan. The Social Sciences. 2013;8(5):421-36.
17. Dhanapal S, Ling KTW. Six thinking hats: A study to understand the reasons and extent of their application in the English language classroom. Journal of English Language and Literature (ISSN: 2368-2132). 2014;1(3):82-92. [DOI:10.17722/jell.v1i3.53]
18. Hani U, Petrus I, Sitinjak MD, editors. The effect of six thinking hats and critical thinking on speaking achievement. Ninth International Conference on Applied Linguistics (CONAPLIN 9); 2016: Atlantis Press. [DOI:10.2991/conaplin-16.2017.18]
19. Ekahitanond V. Adopting the Six Thinking Hats to Develop Critical Thinking Abilities through LINE. Australian Educational Computing. 2018;33(1):1-16.
20. 2022 [Available from:
21. Torrance EP, Ball OE, Safter HT. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking: Streamlined Scoring Guide for Figural Forms A and B; to be Used in Conjuction with the TTCT Norms-Technical Manual: Scholastic Testing Service; 2008.
22. Afriani S, Atiqa N, editors. Application Of Six Thinking Hats Method In Improving Students' Thematics Learning Outcome In Elementary School. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference of Science and Technology in Elementary Education, ICSTEE 2019, 14 September, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia; 2019. [DOI:10.4108/eai.14-9-2019.2290020]
23. Bayraktar G. The effect of cooperative learning on students' approach to general gymnastics course and academic achievements. Educational research and reviews. 2011;6(1):62-71.

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb