Articles In Press / Online First                   Back to the articles list | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Postgraduate Education Institute, Haliç University, Istanbul, Türkiye.
2- Faculty of Sports Sciences, Department of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, Haliç University, Istanbul, Türkiye.
3- Faculty of Sports Sciences, Department of Physical Education and Sport Teaching, Haliç University, Istanbul, Türkiye. ,
Abstract:   (138 Views)
Background. Volleyball warm-up protocols can lead to improvements in vertical jump performance.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of a short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol and a traditional warm-up protocol on vertical jump height in elite and sub-elite women volleyball players.
Methods. Thirty healthy volleyball players (aged 26.53±3.72 years; elite group n=14; sub-elite group n=16) performed a short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol (27 min) and a traditional warm-up protocol (45 min) over three days at 48-hour intervals. After each protocol, the vertical jump height was evaluated using the VERT wearable jump device. The ANOVA test for repeated measurements revealed a significant difference, and a Bonferroni post-hoc test was used.
Results. In all groups, vertical jump height was significantly changed and increased from the short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol compared to the traditional warm-up protocol (Diff=-3.103; 95% CI=-4.118 to -2.088; d=0.81; p<0.001; ηp2=0.762) and the without warm-up (Diff=-4.973; 95% CI=-6.153 to -3.793; d=1.36; p<0.001). In the elite group, vertical jump height was significantly changed and increased from the short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol compared to the traditional warm-up protocol (Diff=3.943; 95% CI=1.962 to 5.924; d=1.24; p<0.001; ηp2=0.818) and the without warm-up (Diff=-6.543; 95% CI=-8.609 to -4.476; d=2.13; p<0.001). Similarly, in the sub-elite group, vertical jump height was also significantly changed and increased from the short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol compared to the traditional warm-up protocol (Diff=1.231; 95% CI=-0.717 to -1.746; d=0.68; p<0.001; ηp2=0.856) and the without warm-up (Diff=-3.600; 95% CI=-4.375 to -2.825; d=1.04; p<0.001).
Conclusion. In conclusion, the results revealed that, in practical terms, the short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol is the best protocol to immediately improve vertical jump performance in women volleyball players. Robust conclusions, however, need randomized controlled trials with sufficient statistical power.
Full-Text [PDF 507 kb]   (58 Downloads)    
  • Research results show that it is beneficial to use less duration and number of repetitions of static stretching exercises and more dynamic stretching exercises in the applied warm-up protocols.
  • It can be said that individual warm-up exercises combined with a short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol, as opposed to the traditional 45-minute warm-up protocol, increase the vertical jump performance of women volleyball players.
  • Short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol is the best warm-up protocol to acutely improve vertical jump height in women volleyball players, when compared to traditional warm-up protocol and when each one is applied by itself.
  • It is thought that a short-term high-intensity warm-up protocol has a positive effect on vertical jump height and that including it in warm-up programs in sports where vertical jump is a performance criterion may have positive effects.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Motor Control and its Related Branches
Received: 2024/01/14 | Accepted: 2024/03/11

1. 1. Alipasali F, Papadopoulou SD, Gissis, I, Komsis G, Komsis S, Kyranoudis A, Knechtle B, Nikolaidis, PT. The effect of static and dynamic stretching exercises on sprint ability of recreational male volleyball players. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019;16(16): 2835. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph16162835] [PMID] []
2. Silva LM, Neiva HP, Marques M.C. et al. Effects of warm-up, post-warm-up, and re-warm-up strategies on explosive efforts in team sports: A systematic review. Sports Med. 2018; 48: 2285-2299. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-018-0958-5] [PMID]
3. Bradley P, Olsen P, Portas, M. The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2007; 21(1): 223-226. [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200702000-00040] [PMID]
4. Carvalho FL, Carvalho MC, Simão R, Gomes TM, Costa PB, Neto LB, Carvalho RL, Dantas, EH. Acute effects of a warm-up including active, passive, and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2012; 26(9): 2447-2452. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f2b36] [PMID]
5. Woolstenhulme MT, Griffiths CM, Woolstenhulme EM, Parcell AC. Ballistic stretching increases flexibility and acute vertical jump height when combined with basketball activity. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2006; 20(4): 799-803. [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200611000-00012] [PMID]
6. Zakas A, Galazoulas C, Grammatikopoulou MG, Vergou A. Effects of stretching exercise during strengthtraining in prepubertal, pubertal and adolescent boys. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 2002; 6: 170-176. [DOI:10.1054/jbmt.2001.0275]
7. Zakas A, Grammatikopoulou MG, Zakas N, Zahariadis P, Vamvakoudis E. The effect of active warm-upand stretching on the flexibility of adolescent soccer players. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fit. 2006; 46: 57-61.
8. Barnes JL, Schilling BK, Falvo MJ, Weiss LW, Creasy AK, Fry AC. Relationship of jumping and agility performance in female volleyball athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2007; 21: 1192-1196. [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200711000-00036] [PMID]
9. Belcher S, Whatman C, Brughelli M, Borotkanics R. Improved performance in youth netballers using two different length netball specific warm-ups. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. 2023; 18(1): 231-239. [DOI:10.1177/17479541221077252]
10. Rezende FN, Mota GR, Lopes CR, Silva BVC, Simim MAM, Marocolo M. Specific warm-up exercise is the best for vertical countermovement jump in young volleyball players. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física. 2016; 22(04): 299-303. [DOI:10.1590/s1980-6574201600040013]
11. Nikolaidis PT, Ziv G, Arnon M, Lidor R. Physical characteristics and physiological attributes of female volleyball players - The need for individual data. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2012; 26(9): 2547-2557. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f8c06] [PMID]
12. Ziv G, Lidor, R. Vertical jump in female and male volleyball players: A review of observational and experimental studies. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports. 2010; 20(4): 556-567. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01083.x] [PMID]
13. Amasay T. Static block jump techniques in volleyball: Upright versus squat starting positions. J. Strength Cond Res. 2008; 22(4): 1242-1248. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d5a7f] [PMID]
14. Behm DG, Bradbury EE, Haynes AT, Hodder JN, Leonard AM, Paddock, NR. Flexibility is not related to stretch-induced deficits in force or power. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2006; 5(1): 33-42.
15. Ebben WP, Simenz C, Jensen RL. Evaluation of plyometric intensity using electromyography. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2008; 22(3): 861-868. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a834b] [PMID]
16. Pereira G, Freitas PB, Barela JA, Ugrinowitsch C, Rodacki ALF, Kokubun E, Fowler NE. Vertical jump fatigue does not affect intersegmental coordination and segmental contribution. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2014; 20(3): 303-309. [DOI:10.1590/S1980-65742014000300009]
17. Young WB, Behm DG. Effects of running, static stretching and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness. 2003; 43(1): 21-27.
18. Rodriguez-Ruiz D, Quiroga M, Miralles J, Sarmiento S, de Saá Y, García-Manso J. Study of the technical and tactical variables determining set win or loss in top-level European men's volleyball. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports. 2011; 7(1): 7-7. [DOI:10.2202/1559-0410.1281]
19. Langdown BL, Wells JET, Graham S, Bridge MW. Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on highly skilled golfers' drive performance. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2019; 37(6): 656-664. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2018.1522699] [PMID]
20. Johnson M, Baudin P, Ley, AL, Collins, DF. A warm-up routine that incorporates a plyometric protocol potentiates the force-generating capacity of the quadriceps muscles. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2019; 33(2): 380-389. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000002054] [PMID]
21. Ruffieux J, Wälchli M, Kim KM, Taube W. Countermovement jump training is more effective than drop jump training in enhancing jump height in non-professional female volleyball players. Frontiers in Physiology. 2020; 11: 231. [DOI:10.3389/fphys.2020.00231] [PMID] []
22. Herman SL, Smith DT. Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-term performance benefits. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2008; 22(4): 1286-1297. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318173da50] [PMID]
23. Turki-Belkhiria L, Chaouachi A, Turki O, Chtourou H, Chtara M, Chamari K. et al. Eight weeks of dynamic stretching during warm-ups improves jump power but not repeated or single sprint performance. Eur. J. Sport Sci. 2014; 14(1): 19-27. [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2012.726651] [PMID]
24. Turki O, Dhahbi W, Gueid S, Hmaied S, Souaifi M, Khalifa R. Dynamic warm-up with a weighted vest: Improvement of repeated change-of-direction performance in young male soccer players. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance. 2020; 15(2): 196-203. [DOI:10.1123/ijspp.2018-0800] [PMID]
25. Kruse NT, Barr MW, Gilders RM, Kushnick MR, Rana SR. Effect of different stretching strategies on the kinetics of vertical jumping in female volleyball athletes. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2015; 4(4): 364-370. [DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2014.06.003]
26. Borges TO, Moreira A, Bacchi R. et al. Validation of the VERT wearable jump monitor device in elite youth volleyball players. Biology of Sport. 2017; 34(3): 239-242. [DOI:10.5114/biolsport.2017.66000] [PMID] []
27. Damji F, MacDonald K, Hunt MA, Taunton J, Scott A. Using the VERT wearable device to monitor jumping loads in elite volleyball athletes. PLoS ONE. 2021; 16(1): e0245299. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0245299] [PMID] []
28. Bosco C. Strength Assessment with the Bosco's Test. Rome: Italian Society of Sport Science. 1999.
29. George D, Mallery, M. SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference, 17.0 update. Boston: Pearson Allyn & Bacon Publishers Ltd. 2010.
30. Cohen J. The effect size. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences. 1988. 2nd ed. Lawrance Erlbaum Associates: Hillsdale, NJ, USA.
31. Hartmann A, Herzog T, Drinkmann A. Psychotherapy of bulimia nervosa: What is effective? A meta-analysis. J. Psychosom. Res. 1992; 36: 159-167. [DOI:10.1016/0022-3999(92)90024-V] [PMID]
32. Horita T, Komi VP, Nicol C, Kyrolainen H. Stretch shortening cycle fatigue: Interactions among joint stiness. reflex and muscle mechanical performance in the drop jump. European J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 1996; 73: 393-403. [DOI:10.1007/BF00334415] [PMID]
33. Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, Leontsini D, Taxildaris K, Aggelousis N, Kostopoulos N, Buckenmeyer P. Evaluation of plyometric exercise training, weight training, and their combination on vertical jumping performance and leg strength. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2000; 14(4): 470-476. [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200011000-00016]
34. Kraemer WJ, Newton RU. Training for improved vertical jump. Sports Science Exchange. 1994; 7(6): 1-12.
35. Gil MH, Neiva HP, Marinho DA, Sousa AC, Marques MC. Current approaches on warming up for sports performance: A critical review. Strength and Conditioning Journal. 2019; 41(4): 70-79. [DOI:10.1519/SSC.0000000000000454]
36. Andrade D, Henriquez-Olguín C, Beltrán A, Ramírez M, Labarca C, Cornejo M, Álvarez C, Ramírez-Campillo, R. Effects of general, specific, and combined warm-up on explosive muscular performance. Biology of Sport. 2015; 32(2): 123-128. [DOI:10.5604/20831862.1140426] [PMID] []
37. Mancilla SC, Hood Maldonado K, Hebel Lorca M, Castro Pérez J, Muñoz Albarrán P, Martínez-Lema D, López Pinilla JP, Guede-Rojas F. Effects of a sprint and plyometric warm-up protocol on vertical jump height and power in adolescent female volleyball players. A randomized crossover study. Retos. 2023: 48; 304-311. [DOI:10.47197/retos.v48.93852]
38. Barroso R, Silva-Batista C, Tricoli V, Roschel H, Ugrinowitsch C. The effects of different intensities and durations of the general warm-up on leg-press 1RM. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2013; 27(4): 1009-1013. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182606cd9] [PMID]
39. Burkett LN, Phillips WT, Ziuraitis J. The best warm-up for the vertical jump in college-age athletic men. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2005; 19(3): 673-676. [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200508000-00031] [PMID]
40. Hassan MHA, Che Muhamed AM, Mohd Ali NF, Choon Lian DK, Lian-Yee K, Safii NS, Md Yusof S, Mohamad Fauzi NF. Proceedings of the 2019 Movement, Health & Exercise (MoHE) and International Sports Science Conference (ISSC). 2020; 134-141.
41. Bishop D, Bonetti D, Dawson B. The effect of three different warm-up intensities on kayak ergometer performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise. 2001; 33(6): 1026-1032. [DOI:10.1097/00005768-200106000-00023] [PMID]
42. Hawley JA, Williams MM, Hamling GC, Walsh RM. Effects of a task-specific warm-up on anaerobic power. Br. J. Sports Med. 1989; 23(4): 233-236. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.23.4.233] [PMID] []
43. Bishop D. Warm up I: potential mechanisms and the effects of passive warm up on exercise performance. Sports Medicine. 2003; 33(6): 439-454. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200333060-00005] [PMID]
44. Fernández-Agulló R. Effects of stretching during warm-up on motor performance: A protocol for systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Journal of Physical Education and Human Movement. 2022; 4(2): 40-47. [DOI:10.24310/JPEHMjpehmjpehm.v4i215799]
45. Fletcher I.M. The effect of different dynamic stretch velocities on jump performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2010; 109: 491-498. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-010-1386-x] [PMID]
46. Robbins JW, Scheuermann BW. Varying amounts of acute static stretching and its effect on vertical jump performance. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2008; 22(3): 781-786. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a59a9] [PMID]
47. Beltran Valls MR, Adelantado-Renau M, Segura-Ayala D, Toledo-Bonifás M, Moliner-Urdiales D. Maturational development, physical activity, and sleep quality in adolescent girls: DADOS project. Retos. 2019; 35: 71-74. [DOI:10.47197/retos.v0i35.60553]
48. Martínez-Rodríguez A, Mira-Alcaraz J, Cuestas-Calero BJ, Pérez-Turpín JA, Alcaraz PE. Plyometric training in female volleyball players: Systematic review. Retos. 2017; 32: 208-213. [DOI:10.47197/retos.v0i32.56053]
49. Gil Arias A, Del Villar Álvarez F, Claver Rabaz F, Moreno Domínguez A, García González L, Moreno Arroyo MP. Is there a relationship between level of competition and knowledge in volleyball ? Retos. 2012; 21: 53-57.
50. Kitamura K, Roschel H, Loturco I, Lamas L, Tricoli V, João PV, Fellingham GS, Ugrinowitsch C. Strength and power training improve skill performance in volleyball players. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física. 2020; 26(1): e10200034. [DOI:10.1590/s1980-65742020000110200034]
51. Marinho B, das Virgens Chagas D. Can motor coordination level predict performance on volleyball skills in youth ? Retos. 2022; 45: 195-201. [DOI:10.47197/retos.v45i0.90359]
52. Forte D, Ceciliani A, Izzo R, Altavilla G. Transition period: Pilot study on performance reduction of ability to jump in volleyball. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. 2019; 14(2): 221-227. [DOI:10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc2.09]
53. Behm DG, Blazevich AJ, Kay AD, McHugh M. Acute effects of muscle stretching on physical performance, range of motion, and injury incidence in healthy active individuals: A systematic review. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2016; 41(1): 1-11. [DOI:10.1139/apnm-2015-0235] [PMID]
54. Fradkin AJ, Zazryn TR, Smoliga JM. Effects of warming-up on physical performance: A systematic review with meta-analysis. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010; 24(1): 140-148. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181c643a0] [PMID]
55. Barbosa GM, Dantas GAF, Pinheiro SM, Rêgo JTP, Oliveira TLC, Silva KKF, Dantas OMS, Vieira, WHB. Acute effects of stretching and/or warm-up on neuromuscular performance of volleyball athletes: a randomized cross-over clinical trial. Sport Sciences for Health. 2020; 16(1): 85-92. [DOI:10.1007/s11332-019-00576-8]
56. Abad CC, Prado ML, Ugrinowitsch C, Tricoli V, Barroso R. Combination of general and specific warm-ups improves leg-press one repetition maximum compared with specific warm-up in trained individuals. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2011; 25(8): 2242-2245. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e8611b] [PMID]
57. Ghareeb DM, McLaine AJ, Wojcik JR, Boyd JM. Effects of two warm-up programs on balance and isokinetic strength in male high school soccer players. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2017; 31(2): 372-379. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001509] [PMID]
58. Creekmur CC, Haworth JL, Cox RH, Walsh MS. Effects of plyometrics performed during warm-up on 20 and 40 m sprint performance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 2017; 57(5): 550-555. [DOI:10.23736/S0022-4707.16.06227-7] [PMID]

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb