year 10, Issue 1 (Spring 2022)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2022, 10(1): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Impey J, Bahdur K, Kramer M. The Mediating Effects of Caffeine Ingestion and Post-Activation Performance Enhancement on Reactive Dive Times in Goalkeepers. Ann Appl Sport Sci. 2022; 10 (1)
URL: http://aassjournal.com/article-1-979-en.html
1- Human Movement Science Department, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
2- Human Movement Science Department, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa , khatija.bahdur@mandela.ac.za
3- Physical Activity, Sport and Recreation (PhaSRec) Research Focus Area, North West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
Abstract:   (1556 Views)
Background. The reactive abilities of goalkeepers are crucial and may directly impact match results. Therefore, research on factors that may enhance goalkeeper performances during diving tasks (DT) and how these factors are mediated would provide valuable information for coaches and goalkeepers.
Objectives. The purpose of this investigation was to: (i) assess the impact of caffeine consumption and post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) on the DT ability of goalkeepers and (ii) investigate the potential mechanisms responsible for changes in DT performance.
Methods. Purposive sampling was utilized, coupled with a double-blinded cross-over study design. 25 soccer goalkeepers volunteered for the study (age: 22.50 ± 4.32 years; height: 1.67 ± 0.78 m; mass: 66.58 ± 11.30 kg). Players were evaluated for simple reaction time (SRT), dynamic reaction time (RT), jump height (JH), and reactive DT under three treatment conditions: control, caffeine, and PAPE.
Results. Improvements in DT are mediated by improvements in RT rather than changes in JH (i.e. explosiveness) when consuming caffeine (β = -0.09, t (48) = -3.17, P =0.002) or performing plyometric drills (β = -0.14, t (48) = -4.47, P <0.001). Both treatments were similarly effective (Mdiff = 0.00 sec, P < 0.994).
Conclusion. Caffeine consumption or PAPE is similarly effective in improving goalkeeper DT performances. These improvements may likely be related to changes in dynamic RT, thereby implying that faster information processing by the CNS is the likely source for improvements.
Full-Text [PDF 401 kb]   (716 Downloads)    
 
 
APPLICABLE REMARKS
  • Goalkeeper reactive diving performances (DT) are enhanced by similar mechanisms when ingesting caffeine or completing a PAPE drill. The ergogenic improvements are likely to be transferred to on-field performances because DT was enhanced within practically meaningful ranges.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2021/02/17 | Accepted: 2021/04/12 | Published: 2022/03/19 | ePublished: 2022/03/19

References
1. Otte FW, Millar S, Klatt S. Ready to perform? A qualitative-analytic investigation into professional football goalkeepers' match warm-ups. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2020;0(0):1-13. [DOI:10.1177/1747954120909956]
2. Schwab S, Memmert D. The impact of a sports vision training program in youth field hockey players. J Sport Sci Med. 2012;11:624-631.
3. Rebelo-Gonçalves R, Figueiredo AJ, Coelho-e-silva MJ, Tessitore A. Assessment of Technical Skills in Young Soccer Goalkeepers: Reliability and Validity of Two Goalkeeper - Specific Tests. J Sport Sci Med. 2016(15):516-523.
4. Sørensen H, Thomassen M, Zacho M. Biomechanical Profile of Danish Elite and Sub-elite Soccer Goalkeepers. Footb Sci. 2008;5:37-44.
5. Di Salvo V, Benito PJ, Calderón FJ, Di Salvo M, Pigozzi F. Activity profile of elite goalkeepers during football match-play. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008;48(4):443-446.
6. Sainz de Baranda P, Adan L, Garcia-Angulo A, Gomez-Lopez M, Nikolic B, Ortega-Toro E. Differences in the Offensive and Defensive Actions of the Goalkeepers at Women's FIFA World Cup 2011. Front Psychol. 2019;10:223. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00223] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Knoop M, Fernandez-Fernandez J, Ferrauti A. Evaluation of a specific reaction and action speed test for the soccer goalkeeper. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(8):2141-2148. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31827942fa] [PMID]
8. Rodríguez-arce J, Flores-núñez LI, Portillo-rodríguez O, Flores-núñez LI, Portillo-rodríguez O. Assessing the performance of soccer goalkeepers based on their cognitive and motor skills. Int J Perform Anal Sport [Internet]. 2019;19(5):655-671. [DOI:10.1080/24748668.2019.1647042]
9. IFAB. FIFA: Laws of the Game.2020.
10. Ibrahim R, Kingma I, de Boode VA, Faber GS, van Dieen JH. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of the goalkeeper's diving save in football. J Sports Sci. 2019;37(3):313-321. [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2018.1499413] [PMID]
11. Holienka M, Nagy N, Baša R, Babic M. Relationship between the shooting success rate and match result in soccer at the FIFA world cup 2018. J Phys Educ Sport. 2020;20(3):1513-1521.
12. Wimshurst ZL, Sowden PT, Cardinale M. Visual skills and playing positions of Olympic field hockey players. Percept Mot Skills. 2012;114(1):204-216. [DOI:10.2466/05.22.24.PMS.114.1.204-216] [PMID]
13. Devi S, Madhuri K. Comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical students. MedPulse Int J Physiol. 2017;4(1):4-6.
14. Jain A, Bansal R, Kumar A, Singh KD. A comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical first year students. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2015;5(2):124-127. [DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157168] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Woods DL, Wyma JM, Yund EW, Herron TJ, Reed B. Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015;9:131. [DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00131] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Durlac PJ, Edmunds R, Howard L, Tipper SP. A rapid effect of caffeinated beverages on two choice reaction time tasks. Nutr Neurosci. 2002;5(6):433-442. [DOI:10.1080/1028415021000039211] [PMID]
17. Saville CWN, de Morree HM, Dundon NM, Marcora SM, Klein C. Effects of caffeine on reaction time are mediated by attentional rather than motor processes. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2018;235(3):749-759. [DOI:10.1007/s00213-017-4790-7] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Salinero JJ, Lara B, Del Coso J. Effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on team sports performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Res Sports Med. 2019;27(2):238-256. [DOI:10.1080/15438627.2018.1552146] [PMID]
19. Wilson JM, Duncan NM, Marin PJ, Brown LE, Loenneke JP, Wilson SM, et al. Meta-analysis of postactivation potentiation and power: effects of conditioning activity, volume, gender, rest periods, and training status. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(3):854-859. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2bdb] [PMID]
20. Sharma SK, Raza S, Moiz JA, Verma S, Naqvi IH, Anwer S, et al. Postactivation Potentiation Following Acute Bouts of Plyometric versus Heavy-Resistance Exercise in Collegiate Soccer Players. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:3719039. [DOI:10.1155/2018/3719039] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Seitz LB, Haff GG. Factors Modulating Post-Activation Potentiation of Jump, Sprint, Throw, and Upper-Body Ballistic Performances: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. Sports Med. 2016;46(2):231-240. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-015-0415-7] [PMID]
22. Guerra MA, Jr., Caldas LC, De Souza HL, Vitzel KF, Cholewa JM, Duncan MJ, et al. The acute effects of plyometric and sled towing stimuli with and without caffeine ingestion on vertical jump performance in professional soccer players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15(1):51. [DOI:10.1186/s12970-018-0258-3] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Tobin DP, Delahunt E. The acute effect of a plyometric stimulus on jump performance in professional rugby players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(2):367-372. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e318299a214] [PMID]
24. McArdle WD, Katch FI, Catch VL. Exercsie physiology: nutrition, energy, and human performance. 7th ed. Lippincott Williams &Wilkins2010.
25. Dykiert D, Der G, Starr JM, Deary IJ. Age differences in intra-individual variability in simple and choice reaction time: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e45759. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045759] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Moir GL. Three Different Methods of Calculating Vertical Jump Height from Force Platform Data in Men and Women. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2008;12:207-218. [DOI:10.1080/10913670802349766]
27. Warner RM. From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques. In: Applied Statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques. 2nd ed. London, UK: Sage Publications2013.
28. Fairchild AJ, Mackinnon DP, Taborga MP, Taylor AB. R2 effect-size measures for mediation analysis. Behav Res Methods. 2009;41(2):486-498. [DOI:10.3758/BRM.41.2.486] [PMID] [PMCID]
29. akens D, Scheel AM, Isager PM. Equivalence Testing for Psychological Research: A Tutorial. Adv Methods Pract Psychol Sci. 2018;1(2):259-269. [DOI:10.1177/2515245918770963]
30. Cumming G. Calin-Jageman R. Introduction to the new statistics. New York: Routledge2017. [DOI:10.4324/9781315708607]
31. van der Kamp J, Dicks M, Navia JA, Noël B. Goalkeeping in the soccer penalty kick: It is time we take affordance-based control. Ger J Exerc Sport Res. 2018;48:169-175. [DOI:10.1007/s12662-018-0506-3]
32. Grgic J, Trexler ET, Lazinica B, Pedisic Z. Effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15:11. [DOI:10.1186/s12970-018-0216-0] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Heckman MA, Weil J, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in foods: a comprehensive review on consumption, functionality, safety, and regulatory matters. J Food Sci. 2010;75(3):R77-87. [DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01561.x] [PMID]
34. Brunye TT, Mahoney CR, Lieberman HR, Taylor HA. Caffeine modulates attention network function. Brain Cogn. 2010;72(2):181-188. [DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2009.07.013] [PMID]
35. Blazevich AJ, Babault N. Post-activation Potentiation Versus Post-activation Performance Enhancement in Humans: Historical Perspective, Underlying Mechanisms, and Current Issues. Front Physiol. 2019;10:1359. [DOI:10.3389/fphys.2019.01359] [PMID] [PMCID]
36. Cuenca-Fernandez F, Smith IC, Jordan MJ, MacIntosh BR, Lopez-Contreras G, Arellano R, et al. Nonlocalized postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) effects in trained athletes: a pilot study. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(10):1122-1125. [DOI:10.1139/apnm-2017-0217] [PMID]
37. In Summary: Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations. Nutr Today. 2002;37(1):26-27. [DOI:10.1097/00017285-200201000-00009] [PMID]
38. Hespel P, Maughan RJ, Greenhaff PL. Dietary supplements for football. J Sports Sci. 2006;24(7):749-761. [DOI:10.1080/02640410500482974] [PMID]
39. Bishop D. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance. Sports Med. 2010;40(12):995-1017. [DOI:10.2165/11536870-000000000-00000] [PMID]
40. Apostolidis A, Mougios V, Smilios I, Frangous M, Hadjicharalambous M. Caffeine supplementation is ergogenic in soccer players independent of cardiorespiratory or neuromuscular fitness levels. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2020;17(1):31. [DOI:10.1186/s12970-020-00360-x] [PMID] [PMCID]

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb