year 10, Issue 1 (Spring 2022)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2022, 10(1): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Zhang Q, Wu K, Yao R, Xu Q. Golf Coaches Use Tacit Knowledge to Improve Transfer Performance: Understanding the Mediating Role of Transfer Capacity in Golf Coaching. Ann Appl Sport Sci. 2022; 10 (1)
1- Tourism Management Department, Jinan University, Shenzhen, China
2- Golf and Leisure Sports Research Centre, Jinan University, Shenzhen, China ,
Abstract:   (1520 Views)
Background. Golf is relatively new in China, and overall playing skills are low. Although golf coaches are vital in improving golf skills, their teaching skills are underdeveloped.
Objectives. This study aims to explore how the coach’s tacit knowledge affects the transfer performance by exploring the factors that affect the teaching ability of Chinese golf coaches. It aims to improve the teaching efficiency of coaches in physical education and give reference to other sports in teaching. Methods. Participants (N=339) included golf coaches from Shenzhen (China) and members of an online golf instructor group.
Results. (1) The possession of tacit knowledge allows coaches better to transmit that information, both amount and effectiveness. (2) Knowledge transferability improved knowledge transfer performance, mediating the relationship between tacit knowledge and knowledge transfer. (3) Skilled tacit knowledge had more influence on transfer capacity than cognitive tacit knowledge. (4) Absorptive capacity positively regulates transferability and knowledge transfer performance.
Conclusion. The findings can contribute to developing a theoretical understanding of golf coaching that can improve practice in China, where golf coaching is still at an early stage of development.
Full-Text [PDF 326 kb]   (641 Downloads)    
  • This article provides detailed suggestions for the unpredictable situation of golf coaches. These suggestions might help guide them through training in the future effectively. The theoretical model constructed for tacit knowledge transfer can be applied to research on other sports.
  • This study has some limitations. For instance, the model was constructed solely on transfer and absorption capacities, but variables such as satisfaction, loyalty, and learning burnout could also have been included. Future studies should consider including other variables contributing to knowledge transfer performance, such as coaches’ sense of well-being or self-efficacy.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Motor Control and its Related Branches
Received: 2021/03/29 | Accepted: 2021/06/10 | Published: 2022/03/19 | ePublished: 2022/03/19

1. "White Paper of China golf industry report [Internet]. Forward Management Group. 2017. Available from:
2. Jenkins S. Professionalism, golf coaching and a master of science degree. Int J Sport Sci Coach. 2014;9(4):693-715. [DOI:10.1260/1747-9541.9.4.693]
3. Grecic D, Carson HJ, Collins D, Ryan B. The US golf academy system and the twenty first century talent tourists! Future lines of research to understand this new golfing talent pathway. Int J Golf Sci. 2017;6(1):1-19. [DOI:10.1123/ijgs.2016-0007]
4. Polanyi M. The Logic of Tacit Inference. Philosoph. 1966;41(155):1-8. [DOI:10.1017/S0031819100066110]
5. Simonin B. An empirical investigation of the process of knowledge transfer in international strategic alliances. J Int Business Stud. 2004;35(5):407-427. [DOI:10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400091]
6. Lane PJ, Lubatkin M. Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning. Strategic Manage J. 1998;19(5):461-477.<461::AID-SMJ953>3.0.CO;2-L [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199805)19:53.0.CO;2-L]
7. Liu XH. Analysis on the Factor Influencing Interorganizational Learning Effect and Countermeasure in Industry-university-institute Cooperation. R D Manage. 2007;19(4):112-118.
8. Argote L, Ingram P. Knowledge Transfer: A Basis for Competitive Advantage in Firms. Organiz Behav Human Dec Process. 2000;82(1):150-169. [DOI:10.1006/obhd.2000.2893]
9. Szulanski G. Exploring internal stickiness: Impediments to the transfer of best practice within the firm. Strategic Manage J. 1996;17(S2):27-43. [DOI:10.1002/smj.4250171105]
10. Gold AH, Malhotra A, Segars AH. Knowledge management: An organizational capabilities perspective. J Manage Inform Sys. 2001;18(1):185-214. [DOI:10.1080/07421222.2001.11045669]
11. Schulze A, Brojerdi G, Von Krogh G. Those Who Know, Do. Those Who Understand, Teach. Disseminative Capability and Knowledge Transfer in the Automotive Industry. J Produc Innovat Manage. 2013;31(1):79-97. [DOI:10.1111/jpim.12081]
12. Nonaka I, Konno N. The Concept of "Ba": Building a Foundation for Knowledge Creation. California Manage Rev. 1998;40(3):40-54. [DOI:10.2307/41165942]
13. Bock G, Kim Y. Breaking the Myths of Rewards. Inform Resource Manage J. 2002;15(2):14-21. [DOI:10.4018/irmj.2002040102]
14. Golder PN, Shacham R, Mitra D. Findings-Innovations' Origins: When, By Whom, and How Are Radical Innovations Developed. Market Sci. 2009;28(1):166-179. [DOI:10.1287/mksc.1080.0384]
15. Cushion CJ, Armour KM, Jones RL. Coach education and continuing professional development: Experience and learning to coach. Quest. 2003;55(3):215-230. [DOI:10.1080/00336297.2003.10491800]
16. Håkanson L, Nobel R. Foreign research and development in Swedish multinationals. Res Polic. 1993;22(5-6):373-396. [DOI:10.1016/0048-7333(93)90008-6]
17. Meyer J, Rowan B. Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony. America J Soc. 1977;83(2):340-363. [DOI:10.1086/226550]
18. Hansen M. The Search-Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organization Subunits. Admin Sci Quarter. 1999;44(1):82. [DOI:10.2307/2667032]
19. Martin X, Salomon R. Tacitness, Learning, and International Expansion: A Study of Foreign Direct Investment in a Knowledge-Intensive Industry. Organization Sci. 2003;14(3):297-311. [DOI:10.1287/orsc.]
20. Mount M, Milewski S, Fernandes K. Exploring the knowledge complexities of innovation intermediaries: the case of nanotechnology in the UK. Int J Technol Manage. 2015;69(1):20-37. [DOI:10.1504/IJTM.2015.071029]
21. Park B. Knowledge transfer capacity of multinational enterprises and technology acquisition in international joint ventures. Int Business Rev. 2011;20(1):75-87. [DOI:10.1016/j.ibusrev.2010.06.002]
22. Nonaka I. A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organiz Sci. 1994;5(1):14-37. [DOI:10.1287/orsc.5.1.14]
23. Gao XY. A model transformation of tacit knowledge based on ontology. Inform Stud Theory Appl. 2007;30(1):41-45.
24. Koskinen K, Vanharanta H. The role of tacit knowledge in innovation processes of small technology companies. Int J Produc Economic. 2002;80(1):57-64. [DOI:10.1016/S0925-5273(02)00243-8]
25. Swap W, Leonard D, Shields M, Abrams L. Using Mentoring and Storytelling to Transfer Knowledge in the Workplace. J Manage Inform Sys. 2001;18(1):95-114. [DOI:10.1080/07421222.2001.11045668]
26. Staub FC, Stern E. The nature of teachers' pedagogical content beliefs matters for students' achievement gains: Quasi-experimental evidence from elementary mathematics. J Education Psychol. 2002;94(2):344. [DOI:10.1037/0022-0663.94.2.344]
27. Holtham C, Courtney N. Developing managerial learning styles in the context of the strategic application of information and communications technologies. Int J Train Develop. 2001;5(1):23-33. [DOI:10.1111/1468-2419.00119]
28. Hamel G. Competition for competence and interpartner learning within international strategic alliances. Strateg Manage J. 1991;12(S1):83-103. [DOI:10.1002/smj.4250120908]
29. Lockett A, Wright M. Resources, capabilities, risk capital and the creation of university spin-out companies. Res Polic. 2005;34(7):1043-1057. [DOI:10.1016/j.respol.2005.05.006]
30. Minbaeva D, Michailova S. Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations. Employee Relation. 2004;26(6):663-679. [DOI:10.1108/01425450410562236]
31. Cohen W, Levinthal D. Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation. Admin Sci Quarter. 1990;35(1):128. [DOI:10.2307/2393553]
32. Kim L. Crisis Construction and Organizational Learning: Capability Building in Catching-up at Hyundai Motor. Organiz Sci. 1998;9(4):506-521. [DOI:10.1287/orsc.9.4.506]
33. Zahra S, George G. Absorptive Capacity: A Review, Reconceptualization, and Extension. Academ Manage Rev. 2002;27(2):185. [DOI:10.2307/4134351]
34. Todorova G, Durisin B. Absorptive capacity: Valuing a reconceptualization. Academ Manage Rev. 2007;32(3):774-786. [DOI:10.5465/amr.2007.25275513]
35. Kostopoulos K, Papalexandris A, Papachroni M, Ioannou G. Absorptive capacity, innovation, and financial performance. J Business Res. 2011;64(12):1335-1343. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.12.005]
36. Murovec N, Prodan I. Absorptive capacity, its determinants, and influence on innovation output: Cross-cultural validation of the structural model. Technovat. 2009;29(12):859-872. [DOI:10.1016/j.technovation.2009.05.010]
37. Nash C, Collins D. Tacit knowledge in expert coaching: Science or art. Quest. 2006;58(4):465-477. [DOI:10.1080/00336297.2006.10491894]
38. Finn J. Using Mental Skills to Improve Golfing Performance: A Theory-Based Case Study for Golf Coaches. Int J Sport Sci Coach. 2009;4(1_suppl):223-245. [DOI:10.1260/174795409789577434]
39. Cummings JL, Teng BS. The keys to successful knowledge-sharing. J General Manage. 2006;31(4):1-18. [DOI:10.1177/030630700603100401]
40. Liyanage C, Elhag T, Ballal T, Li Q. Knowledge communication and translation - a knowledge transfer model. J Knowledge Manage. 2009;13(3):118-131. [DOI:10.1108/13673270910962914]
41. Parent R, Roy M, St‐Jacques D. A systems‐based dynamic knowledge transfer capacity model. J Knowledge Manage. 2007;11(6):81-93. [DOI:10.1108/13673270710832181]
42. Sardeshmukh SR, Vandenberg RJ. Integrating moderation and mediation: A structural equation modeling approach. Organiz Res Method. 2017;20(4):721-745. [DOI:10.1177/1094428115621609]

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb