year 10, Issue 2 (Summer 2022)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2022, 10(2): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Sut Txi M R, Ishak A, Mat Salleh F N, Pau K, Anuar Hashim H. The Prevalence of Emotional Distress among Athletes during COVID-19 Movement Control Order Period in Malaysia. Ann Appl Sport Sci. 2022; 10 (2)
URL: http://aassjournal.com/article-1-1018-en.html
1- Faculty of Sport Sciences and Coaching, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia
2- Faculty of Human Development, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak, Malaysia
3- School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia , hairulkb@usm.my
Abstract:   (1093 Views)
Background. The outbreak of Coronavirus-19 or COVID-19 has detrimental effects on the sports industry. Cancellation of sports training and competitions, movement restriction, and social isolation present an emotional challenge for athletes.
Objectives. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of emotional distress among athletes during the MCO of Covid-19 in Malaysia.
Methods. 224 male and 264 female athletes participated in this study in May 2020. The majority of the participants were archers (20.7%), followed by athletics (12.9), netball (8.4%), and badminton (6.6%). An online survey was employed, which consists of three measures: (a) demographic information, (b) Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale -21, and (c) Kessler Psychological Distress Scale - 10.
Results. The results indicated that 7.2% (N=35) of the participants reported severe to extremely severe stress, 20.5% (N=100) of participants experienced severe to extremely severe anxiety, and 10% (N=49) participants reported severe to extremely severe depression. Moreover, Chi-Square analysis revealed no significant differences between the level of stress, anxiety, and depression based on age, gender, and category of sports (individual vs. team sports), except for gender and depression (X2 (4, N=488) = 12.18, P= 0.016). More female athletes reported severe depression (20.3%) compared to male athletes (13.4%).
Conclusion. This finding suggests further assessment, monitoring, and treatment plan for athletes, especially female athletes, to ensure their mental health and emotional wellbeing during this Covid19 pandemic.
Full-Text [PDF 336 kb]   (650 Downloads)    
 
 
APPLICABLE REMARKS
  • Continuous monitoring of athletes’ level of emotional distress, especially among the vulnerable groups such as female and younger athletes, as shown in the data.
  • Ensuring psychosocial support services to these vulnerable population is easily accessible.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Psychology and its Related Branches
Received: 2021/05/17 | Accepted: 2021/06/29 | Published: 2022/06/20 | ePublished: 2022/06/20

References
1. Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic. Acta Biomed. 2020;91(1):157-160.
2. Ammar A, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Trabelsi K, Masmoudi L, Brach M, et al. COVID-19 Home Confinement Negatively Impacts Social Participation and Life Satisfaction: A Worldwide Multicenter Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(17).
3. Ammar A, Trabelsi K, Brach M, Chtourou H, Boukhris O, Masmoudi L, et al. Effects of home confinement on mental health and lifestyle behaviours during the COVID-19 outbreak: insights from the ECLB-COVID19 multicentre study. Biol Sport. 2021;38(1):9-21. [DOI:10.5114/biolsport.2020.96857] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Czeisler ME, Lane RI, Petrosky E, Wiley JF, Christensen A, Njai R, et al. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, June 24-30, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(32):1049-1057. [DOI:10.15585/mmwr.mm6932a1] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Liang L, Ren H, Cao R, Hu Y, Qin Z, Li C, et al. The Effect of COVID-19 on Youth Mental Health. Psychiatr Q. 2020;91(3):841-852. [DOI:10.1007/s11126-020-09744-3] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: implications and policy recommendations. Gen Psychiatr. 2020;33(2):e100213. [DOI:10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213] [PMID] [PMCID]
7. Zhang J, Lu H, Zeng H, Zhang S, Du Q, Jiang T, et al. The differential psychological distress of populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:49-50. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.031] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Sundarasen S, Chinna K, Kamaludin K, Nurunnabi M, Baloch GM, Khoshaim HB, et al. Psychological Impact of COVID-19 and Lockdown among University Students in Malaysia: Implications and Policy Recommendations. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(17). [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17176206] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Irfan M, Shahudin F, Hooper VJ, Akram W, Abdul Ghani R. The psychological impact of coronavirus on university students and its socio-economic determinants in Malaysia. MPRA. 2020, MPRA_paper_103808.pdf(uni-muenchen.de). [DOI:10.1101/2020.10.27.20220723]
10. Reardon CL, Bindra A, Blauwet C, Budgett R, Campriani N, Currie A, et al. Mental health management of elite athletes during COVID-19: a narrative review and recommendations. Br J Sports Med. 2020. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2020-102884] [PMID]
11. Stambulova NB, Schinke RJ, Lavallee D, Wylleman P. The covid pandemic and Olympic/Paralympic athletes' development challenges and possibilities in times of global crisis-transition. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2020. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2020.1810865]
12. Clemente-Suarez VJ, Fuentes-Garcia JP, de la Vega Marcos R, Martinez Patino MJ. Modulators of the Personal and Professional Threat Perception of Olympic Athletes in the Actual COVID-19 Crisis. Front Psychol. 2020;11:1985. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01985] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Chadha N. Psychological strategies for athletes in the time of COVID-19. 2020. Retrieved from psychreg.org/atletes-covid-19/.
14. Reardon CL, Hainline B, Aron CM, Baron D, Baum AL, Bindra A, et al. Mental health in elite athletes: International Olympic Committee consensus statement (2019). Br J Sports Med. 2019;53(11):667-699. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2019-100715]
15. Schinke RJ, Papaioannou A, Henriksen K, Si. G. Y., Zhang LW, Haberl P. Sport psychology services to high-performance athletes during COVID-19. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2020;18(3):269-272. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2020.1754616]
16. Lovibond S, Lovibond P. The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the depression anxiety stress scale (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behav Res Ther. 1995;33:335-343. [DOI:10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-U]
17. Nordin R, Kaur A, Soni T, Por LK, Miranda S. Construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Malay version of the 21-item depression anxiety stress scale (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Med J Malaysia 2015;72(5):264-270.
18. Kessler RC, Barker PR, Colpe LJ, Epstein JF, Gfroerer JC, Hiripi E, et al. Screening for serious mental illness in the general population. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003;60(2):184-189. [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.60.2.184] [PMID]
19. Tiong XT, Nur Sara SA, Mohamad AB, Fatin ES, Selvasingam R, Chong KJ, et al. Validation of the Kessler's psychological distress scale (K10 & K6) in a Malaysian population. Asian J Psychiatr. 2018;19(1):2231-7805.
20. Myers AL. Olympic athletes open up about suicide, depression in a new doc. 2020. Available from: https://www.beaconjournal.com/story/lifestyle/health-fitness/2020/08/07/olympic-athletes-open-up-about-suicide-depression-in-new-doc/113374636/.
21. Henriksen K, Schinke RJ, Moesch K, McCann S, Parham WD. Consensus statement on improving the mental health of high-performance athletes. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2020;18(5):553-560. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2019.1570473]
22. Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F, Ismail WS, Shah SA, Omar K, Muhammad NA, et al. Correlates of depression, anxiety and stress among Malaysian university students. Asian J Psychiatr. 2013;6(4):318-323. [DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2013.01.014] [PMID]
23. Miller KE, Hoffman JH. Mental Well-Being and Sport-Related Identities in College Students. Sociol Sport J. 2009;26(2):335-356. [DOI:10.1123/ssj.26.2.335] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Pedersen MT, Vorup J, Nistrup A, Wikman JM, Alstrom JM, Melcher PS, et al. Effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, quality of life, and motivation in older adults. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(8):852-864. [DOI:10.1111/sms.12823] [PMID]
25. Fronso SD, Costa S, Montesano C, Gruttola FD, Ciofi EG, Morgilli L, et al. The effects of COVID1-19 pandemic on perceived stress and psychobiosocial states in Italian athletes. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2020. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2020.1802612]
26. Hankin BL, Abramson LY. Development of gender differences in depression: description and possible explanations. Ann Med. 1999;31(6):372-379. [DOI:10.3109/07853899908998794] [PMID]
27. Kanari MA. Effect of exercise on mental health in the physical dimension, anxiety and mental disorder, social dysfunction and depression. Adv Appl Sociol. 2014;4:63-68. [DOI:10.4236/aasoci.2014.43011]
28. Pluhar E, McCracken C, Griffith KL, Christino MA, Sugimoto D, Meehan WP. Team sport athletes may be less likely to suffer anxiety or depression than individual sport athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 2019;18(3):490-496.
29. Wozny DA. Promoting leisure wellness in counselling: Exercises to develop causal leisure into serious leisure. VISTAS. 2012;87:1-13.
30. Chick G, Hsu YC, Yeh CK, Hsieh CM. Leisure constraints, leisure satisfaction, life satisfaction, and self-rated health in six cities in Taiwan Leis Sci. 37. 2015;3(1-20). [DOI:10.1080/01490400.2014.967897]
31. Shanmugam H, Juhari JA, Nair P, Ken CS, Guan NC. Impacts of covid-19 pandemic on mental health in Malaysia: A single thread of hope. Mal J Psychiatr. 2020;29(1):78-84.

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb