year 11, Issue 2 (Summer 2023)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2023, 11(2): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Pranoto N W, Chaeroni A, Rifki M S, Ilham A, Susanto N. The Effects of Inactivity During The COVID-19 Pandemic on the Psychomotor Skills of Kindergarten Students. Ann Appl Sport Sci 2023; 11 (2)
URL: http://aassjournal.com/article-1-1162-en.html
1- Department of Health and Recreation, Faculty of Sports Science, Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia
2- Department of Health and Recreation, Faculty of Sports Science, Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia , ahmad.chaeroni@fik.unp.ac.id
Abstract:   (1540 Views)
Background. Possession of motor skills from an early age by interacting with the outdoor environment has a long-term effect on physical activity. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a restriction to interacting directly with it especially kindergarten students when doing online learning or learning from home due to pandemic health measures. There is a series of literature that reviews the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on several aspects of human life, but a lack of attention remains on the impact of the disease on motor skills development for kindergarten students.
Objectives. To reveal the extent to which the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the motor skills of these kids.
Methods. The method used in this research is described with a quantitative approach. 80 kindergarten students were included in the sample, consisting of 45 boys and 35 girl students in the city of Padang, Indonesia with an age range of 4 to 5 years. A motor skills test was conducted using TGMD-2.
Results. After dealing with all data, findings showcased that the level of motor skills of these students was reduced during the pandemic when compared to before the outbreak. While before the pandemic, such a level of motor skills was in the average category whereas during the pandemic it shifted to the poor category.
Conclusion. This study provides the actual state of the impact of the pandemic COVID-19 on kindergarten students on their motor skills development.
Full-Text [PDF 346 kb]   (912 Downloads)    
 
  
APPLICABLE REMARKS
• The application of this research is to differ the condition motor level of kindergartens during the COVID-19 Condition and the normal condition.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Motor Control and its Related Branches
Received: 2022/10/17 | Accepted: 2023/01/22

References
1. Dergaa I, Abdelrahman H, Varma A, Yousfi N, Souissi A, Ghram A, et al. COVID-19 Vaccination, Herd Immunity and The Transition Toward Normalcy: Challenges with The Upcoming Sports Events. Ann Appl Sport Sci. 2021;9(3):1-10. [DOI:10.52547/aassjournal.1032]
2. Li Z, Qiu Z. How does family background affect children's educational achievement? Evidence from Contemporary China. Vol. 5, Journal of Chinese Sociology. 2018. [DOI:10.1186/s40711-018-0083-8]
3. Sulistiyowati EM, Suherman WS, Sukamti ER, Ilham, Sriwahyuniati F, Budiarti R, et al. Development of Early Childhood Skills by Guiding Tests in Sports Rhythmic Gymnastics. Int J Hum Mov Sport Sci. 2022;10(2):253-63. [DOI:10.13189/saj.2022.100216]
4. Maharjan P, Hyllegard R, Narvaez M, Radlo S. Transfer of Motor Skills: A Comparative Study of College-Level Musicians and Athletes. Int J Mot Control Learn. 2022;4(3):5-9. [DOI:10.52547/ijmcl.4.3.5]
5. Lally M, Valentine-French S. Life-Span Development: A Psychological Perspective. Annu Rev Psychol. 2019;7-11.
6. Lirio-romero C. Families ' Perceptions of the Motor Development and Quality of Confinement Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic . 2021;
7. García Pérez MA MGM. Desarrollo psicomotor y signos de alarma. Curso Actual Pediatría 2016 Madrid. 2016;81-93.
8. Cano-de-la-Cuerda R, Molero-Sánchez A, Carratalá-Tejada M, Alguacil-Diego IM, Molina-Rueda F, Miangolarra-Page JC, et al. Teorías y modelos de control y aprendizaje motor. Aplicaciones clínicas en neurorrehabilitación. Neurologia. 2015;30(1):32-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.nrl.2011.12.010] [PMID]
9. Taheri M, Irandoust K. The Effect of Game-Based Balance Training on Body Composition and Psychomotor Performance of Obese Students. Int J Sch Heal. 2019;In Press(In Press):0-3. [DOI:10.5812/intjsh.83341]
10. Eliassy M, Khajavi D, Shahrjerdi S, Mirmoezzi M. Associations Between Physical Activity and Gross Motor Skills with Social Development in Children with Learning Disabilities. Int J Sport Stud Heal. 2021;4(1):1-6. [DOI:10.5812/intjssh.120844]
11. Adolph KE, Hoch JE. Motor Development: Embodied, Embedded, Enculturated, and Enabling. Annu Rev Psychol. 2019;70(September 2018):141-64. [DOI:10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-102836] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Competence M. Motor Competence. Encycl Exerc Med Heal Dis. 2012;595-595. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-540-29807-6_4369]
13. February NP, Release P, Development C. Study Shows Impact of School Closures on Preschool Children During Covid-19. 2022;
14. Arthi V, Parman J. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ' s public news and information . 2020;(January).
15. González M, Loose T, Liz M, Pérez M, Rodríguez-Vinçon JI, Tomás-Llerena C, et al. School readiness losses during the COVID-19 outbreak. A comparison of two cohorts of young children. Child Dev. 2022;(February):1-2. [DOI:10.1111/cdev.13738] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Orgilés M, Morales A, Delvecchio E, Mazzeschi C, Espada JP. Immediate Psychological Effects of the COVID-19 Quarantine in Youth From Italy and Spain. Front Psychol. 2020;11(November):1-10. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.579038] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. ECLAC-UNESCO. COVID-19 Education in the time of COVID-19 Report. 2020;(August).
18. Gerber RJ, Wilks T, Erdie-Lalena C. Developmental milestones: Motor development. Pediatr Rev. 2010;31(7):267-77. [DOI:10.1542/pir.31-7-267] [PMID]
19. Amorim Adegboye AR, Linne YM. Diet or exercise, or both, for weight reduction in women after childbirth. Cochrane database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul;(7):CD005627. [DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD005627.pub3] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Webster EK, Martin CK, Staiano AE. Fundamental motor skills, screen-time, and physical activity in preschoolers. J Sport Heal Sci [Internet]. 2019;8(2):114-21. Available from: [DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2018.11.006] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Favier T, Van Gorp B, Cyvin JB, Cyvin J. Learning to teach climate change: students in teacher training and their progression in pedagogical content knowledge. J Geogr High Educ [Internet]. 2021;45(4):594-620. Available from: [DOI:10.1080/03098265.2021.1900080]
22. Gregory SM, Parker B, Thompson PD. Physical activity, cognitive function, and brain health: what is the role of exercise training in the prevention of dementia? Brain Sci. 2012 Nov;2(4):684-708. [DOI:10.3390/brainsci2040684] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Walkley J, Holland B V, Treloar R V, O'Connor J. U n d a m e n ta l. 1996;
24. Engel A, Broderick C, Ward R, Parmenter B. Study Protocol: The Effect of a Fundamental Motor Skills Intervention in a Preschool Setting on Fundamental Motor Skills and Physical Activity: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial. Clin Pediatr Open Access. 2018;03(01):1-7. [DOI:10.4172/2572-0775.1000129]
25. Eyre ELJ, Adeyemi LJ, Cook K, Noon M, Tallis J, Duncan M. Barriers and Facilitators to Physical Activity and FMS in Children Living in Deprived Areas in the UK: Qualitative Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19(3). [DOI:10.3390/ijerph19031717] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Lonsdale C, Sanders T, Cohen KE, Parker P, Noetel M, Hartwig T, et al. Scaling-up an efficacious school-based physical activity intervention: Study protocol for the "Internet-based Professional Learning to help teachers support Activity in Youth" (iPLAY) cluster randomized controlled trial and scale-up implementation evalua. BMC Public Health. 2016 Aug;16(1):873. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-016-3724-3] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Adeyemi-Walker LJ, Duncan M, Tallis J, Eyre E. Fundamental motor skills of children in deprived areas of england: A focus on age, gender and ethnicity. Children. 2018;5(8). [DOI:10.3390/children5080110] [PMID] [PMCID]
28. Logan SW, Ross SM, Chee K, Stodden DF, Robinson LE. Fundamental motor skills: A systematic review of terminology. J Sports Sci [Internet]. 2018;36(7):781-96. Available from: [DOI:10.1080/02640414.2017.1340660] [PMID]
29. Dunton GF, Do B, Wang SD. Early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and sedentary behavior in children living in the U.S. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1-13. [DOI:10.1186/s12889-020-09429-3] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Moore SA, Faulkner G, Rhodes RE, Brussoni M, Chulak-Bozzer T, Ferguson LJ, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 virus outbreak on movement and play behaviours of Canadian children and youth: A national survey. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2020;17(1):1-11. [DOI:10.1186/s12966-020-00987-8] [PMID] [PMCID]
31. Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(12):2137-44. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818160d3] [PMID]
32. Musálek M, Clark CCT, Kokštejn J, Vokounova Š, Hnízdil J, Mess F. Impaired Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Muscle Strength in Children with Normal-Weight Obesity. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec;17(24). [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17249198] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. LeGear M, Greyling L, Sloan E, Bell RI, Williams BL, Naylor PJ, et al. A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in Kindergarten. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:1-5. [DOI:10.1186/1479-5868-9-29] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Weaver K, Callister R, Dewar DL, Costigan SA, et al. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children's outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: a physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communit. BMC Public Health. 2012 Jun;12:427. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-12-427] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Robinson LE, Palmer KK, Bub KL. Effect of the children's health activity motor program on motor skills and self-regulation in head start preschoolers: An efficacy trial. Front Public Heal. 2016;4(September):1-9. [DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00173] [PMID] [PMCID]
36. Bellows LL, Davies PL, Courtney JB, Gavin WJ, Johnson SL, Boles RE. Motor skill development in low-income, at-risk preschoolers: A community-based longitudinal intervention study. J Sci Med Sport [Internet]. 2017;20(11):997-1002. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2017.04.003 [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.04.003] [PMID]
37. Wick K, Leeger-Aschmann CS, Monn ND, Radtke T, Ott L V., Rebholz CE, et al. Interventions to Promote Fundamental Movement Skills in Childcare and Kindergarten: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sport Med. 2017;47(10):2045-68. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-017-0723-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
38. Morano M, Colella D, Caroli M. Gross motor skill performance in a sample of overweight and non-overweight preschool children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(SUPPL. 2):42-6. [DOI:10.3109/17477166.2011.613665] [PMID]
39. Cachón-Zagalaz J, Sánchez-Zafra M, Sanabrias-Moreno D, González-Valero G, Lara-Sánchez AJ, Zagalaz-Sánchez ML. Systematic Review of the Literature About the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Lives of School Children. Front Psychol. 2020;11(October):1-8. [DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.569348] [PMID] [PMCID]
40. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Young Children and the Pandemic : UNICEF Early Childhood COVID-19 Response in East Asia and Pacific. 2021;
41. Ra S, Jagannathan S, Maclean R. Powering a Learning Society During an Age of Disruption. Vol. 58, Asian Development Bank. 2021. 1-322 p. [DOI:10.1007/978-981-16-0983-1]
42. Staples KL, MacDonald M, Zimmer C. Assessment of Motor Behavior Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Vol. 42, International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities. Elsevier; 2012. 179-214 p. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-394284-5.00007-3]
43. Ulrich DA. Test of Gross Motor Development - 2. 2nd ed. Sanford CB, editor. pro.ed. Austin, Texas; 2000. 60 p.
44. Bakhtiar S. Fundamental motor skill among 6-year-old children in Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Asian Soc Sci. 2014;10(5):155-8. [DOI:10.5539/ass.v10n5p155]
45. Clark JE, Whitall J. Motor development: A perspective on the past, the present, and the future. Kinesiol Rev. 2021;10(3):264-73. [DOI:10.1123/kr.2021-0023]
46. Batubara BM. The Problems of the World of Education in the Middle of the Covid-19 Pandemic. 2020;450-7. [DOI:10.33258/birci.v4i1.1626]
47. OECD. Combatting COVID- 19 ' s effect on children. Tackling Coronavirus Contrib to a Glob effort. 2020;(May):1-41.
48. Rodrigues HCN, Martins TFP, Santana NCF e. S, Braga CC, Silva MAC, Cunha LC da, et al. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory response to curcumin supplementation in hemodialysis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2021;44:136-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.06.006] [PMID]
49. Nyström CD, Alexandrou C, Henström M, Nilsson E, Okely AD, El Masri SW, et al. International study of movement behaviors in the early years (Sunrise): Results from sunrise sweden's pilot and covid-19 study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(22):1-12. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph17228491] [PMID] [PMCID]
50. Ayubi N, Komaini A. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Children's Motor Skills (Literature Review). Int J Res Publ. 2021;90(1):19-24. [DOI:10.47119/IJRP1009011220212517]
51. Jin X, Dong Y, Du W. The Impact of Family Factors on Children's Mental Health during Home Quarantine: An Empirical Study in Northwest China. Sustain. 2022;14(12). [DOI:10.3390/su14127202]
52. Ghanamah R, Eghbaria-Ghanamah H. Impact of covid-19 pandemic on behavioral and emotional aspects and daily routines of Arab israeli children. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(6):1-19. [DOI:10.3390/ijerph18062946] [PMID] [PMCID]
53. Dos Santos GC, Queiroz J do N, Reischak-Oliveira Á, Rodrigues-Krause J. Effects of dancing on physical activity levels of children and adolescents: a systematic review. Complement Ther Med. 2021 Jan;56:102586. [DOI:10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102586] [PMID]
54. Elnaggar RK, Alqahtani BA, Mahmoud WS, Elfakharany MS. Physical Activity in Adolescents During the Social Distancing Policies of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Asia-Pacific J Public Heal. 2020;32(8):491-4. [DOI:10.1177/1010539520963564] [PMID]
55. Lemos AG, Avigo EL, Barela JA. Physical Education in Kindergarten Promotes Fundamental Motor Skill Development. Adv Phys Educ. 2012;02(01):17-21. [DOI:10.4236/ape.2012.21003]

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb