year 5, Issue 4 (Winter 2017)                   Ann. Appl. Sport Sci 2017, 5(4): 1-12 | Back to browse issues page


XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rahmati-Ahmadabad S, Azarbayjani M, Nasehi M. The Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training with Supplementation of Flaxseed Oil on BDNF mRNA Expression and Pain Feeling in Male Rats. Ann. Appl. Sport Sci. 2017; 5 (4) :1-12
URL: http://aassjournal.com/article-1-356-en.html
1- Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , m_azarbayjani@iauctb.ac.ir
3- Cognitive and Neuroscience Research Center (CNRC), Tehran Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (3428 Views)
Background. It seems that based on the independent effects of physical activity and flax oil on pain, it is possible the interactions of these two effects reduces or mitigate the impact of pain or strengthen it.
Objectives. This study investigates the effect of high-intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on hippocampal BDNF expression and pain feeling in male rats.
Methods. Twenty adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (five in each group) including control-saline (CS), training-saline (TS), control-flaxseed oil (CO), and training-flaxseed oil (TO). The training groups were given high-intensity interval training (10 weeks, five sessions in week) on a rodent treadmill at 90–95% of VO2 max and supplement groups also received flaxseed oil (10 mg/kg per cage). Pain threshold was assessed by the hot plate test at a temperature of 55 ± 0.5 °C five days after the last session training. Then rats were sacrificed, their hippocamp tissue frizzed, and sent to laboratory to determine the BDNF gene expression.
Results. The result showed that training significantly induced higher plasma BDNF concentration (p<0.001) and lower pain threshold (p<0.02). Training-flaxseed oil combination group induced significant increase in BDNF expression (p<0.04). There were no significant differences between the other groups.
Conclusion. The present study showed the useful role of flaxseed oil supplement and high-intensity interval training in increasing an important factor for Alzheimer's disease. It also showed that, although intensive exercise may be accompanied with reduced pain threshold and increased pain feeling, it has palpable beneficial effects on memory enhancement.
Full-Text [PDF 473 kb]   (518 Downloads)    
 
 
APPLICABLE REMARKS
• High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases hippocampal BDNF gene expression that is benefit for trained subjects.
• It is recommended that trained subjects consume the flaxseed oil supplement with HIIT; because this combination has more effect on hippocampal BDNF gene expression compared with HIIT alone that trained subjects derive a benefit from this over-expression.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2016/05/22 | Accepted: 2017/07/1 | Published: 2017/08/18

References
1. Dysken MW, Sano M, Asthana S, Vertrees JE, Pallaki M, Llorente M, et al. Effect of vitamin E and memantine on functional decline in Alzheimer disease: the TEAM-AD VA cooperative randomized trial. Jama. 2014;311(1):33-44. [DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.282834] [PMID] [PMCID]
2. Kalenzaga S, Bugaiska A, Clarys D. Self-reference effect and autonoetic consciousness in Alzheimer disease: evidence for a persistent affective self in dementia patients. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders. 2013;27(2):116-22. [DOI:10.1097/WAD.0b013e318257dc31] [PMID]
3. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Barnes LL, Bennett DA. Effect of a purpose in life on risk of incident Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older persons. Archives of general psychiatry. 2010;67(3):304-10. [DOI:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.208] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Yu L, Schneider JA, Bennett DA. Effect of purpose in life on the relation between Alzheimer disease pathologic changes on cognitive function in advanced age. Archives of general psychiatry. 2012;69(5):499-505. [DOI:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.1487] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. de Sousa OL, Amaral TF. Three-week nutritional supplementation effect on long-term nutritional status of patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer disease and associated disorders. 2012;26(2):119-23. [DOI:10.1097/WAD.0b013e31822c5bb3] [PMID]
6. Powlishta KK, Storandt M, Mandernach TA, Hogan E, Grant EA, Morris JC. Absence of effect of depression on cognitive performance in early-stage Alzheimer disease. Archives of neurology. 2004;61(8):1265-8. [DOI:10.1001/archneur.61.8.1265] [PMID]
7. Huang EJ, Reichardt LF. Neurotrophins: roles in neuronal development and function. Annual review of neuroscience. 2001;24:677-736. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.neuro.24.1.677] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Huang EJ, Reichardt LF. Trk receptors: roles in neuronal signal transduction. Annual review of biochemistry. 2003;72:609-42. [DOI:10.1146/annurev.biochem.72.121801.161629] [PMID]
9. Hughes MS, Shenoy M, Liu L, Colak T, Mehta K, Pasricha PJ. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is upregulated in rats with chronic pancreatitis and mediates pain behavior. Pancreas. 2011;40(4):551-6. [DOI:10.1097/MPA.0b013e318214fb77] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Mariga A, Zavadil J, Ginsberg SD, Chao MV. Withdrawal of BDNF from hippocampal cultures leads to changes in genes involved in synaptic function. Developmental neurobiology. 2015;75(2):173-92. [DOI:10.1002/dneu.22216] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Berchtold NC, Chinn G, Chou M, Kesslak JP, Cotman CW. Exercise primes a molecular memory for brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein induction in the rat hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2005;133(3):853-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.03.026] [PMID]
12. Terman GW, Shavit Y, Lewis JW, Cannon JT, Liebeskind JC. Intrinsic mechanisms of pain inhibition: activation by stress. Science. 1984;226(4680):1270-7. [DOI:10.1126/science.6505691] [PMID]
13. Dufton LM, Konik B, Colletti R, Stanger C, Boyer M, Morrow S, et al. Effects of stress on pain threshold and tolerance in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Pain. 2008;136(1-2):38-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2007.06.012] [PMID]
14. Vachon-Presseau E, Martel MO, Roy M, Caron E, Albouy G, Marin MF, et al. Acute stress contributes to individual differences in pain and pain-related brain activity in healthy and chronic pain patients. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2013;33(16):6826-33. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4584-12.2013] [PMID]
15. Vedolin GM, Lobato VV, Conti PC, Lauris JR. The impact of stress and anxiety on the pressure pain threshold of myofascial pain patients. Journal of oral rehabilitation. 2009;36(5):313-21. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2842.2008.01932.x] [PMID]
16. Ashkinazi I, Vershinina EA. Pain sensitivity in chronic psychoemotional stress in humans. Neuroscience and behavioral physiology. 1999;29(3):333-7. [DOI:10.1007/BF02465346] [PMID]
17. Beecher HK. Pain in men wounded in battle. Bulletin of the US Army Medical Department United States Army Medical Department. 1946;5:445-54. [DOI:10.1097/00000658-194601000-00008]
18. Beecher HK. Relationship of significance of wound to pain experienced. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1956;161(17):1609-13. [DOI:10.1001/jama.1956.02970170005002] [PMID]
19. Tierney G, Carmody J, Jamieson D. Stress analgesia: the opioid analgesia of long swims suppresses the non-opioid analgesia induced by short swims in mice. Pain. 1991;46(1):89-95. [DOI:10.1016/0304-3959(91)90038-Y]
20. Sheahan TD, Copits BA, Golden JP, Gereau RWt. Voluntary Exercise Training: Analysis of Mice in Uninjured, Inflammatory, and Nerve-Injured Pain States. PloS one. 2015;10(7):e0133191. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0133191] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Shokraviyan M, Miladi-Gorji H, Vaezi GH. Voluntary and forced exercises prevent the development of tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine in rats. Iranian journal of basic medical sciences. 2014;17(4):271-7. [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Koltyn KF. Analgesia following exercise: a review. Sports medicine. 2000;29(2):85-98. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200029020-00002] [PMID]
23. Morgan D, Mitzelfelt JD, Koerper LM, Carter CS. Effects of morphine on thermal sensitivity in adult and aged rats. The journals of gerontology Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences. 2012;67(7):705-13. [DOI:10.1093/gerona/glr210] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Motaghinejad M, Ghaleni MA, Motaghinejad O. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold. International journal of preventive medicine. 2014;5(10):1299-307. [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Rossi DM, Valenti VE, Navega MT. Exercise training attenuates acute hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats. Clinics. 2011;66(9):1615-9. [DOI:10.1590/S1807-59322011000900019] [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Kolodny AL. Side-effects produced by alcohol in a patient receiving furazolidone. Maryland state medical journal. 1962;11:248. [PMID]
27. Jacobson L, Chabal C, Brody MC. A dose-response study of intrathecal morphine: efficacy, duration, optimal dose, and side effects. Anesthesia and analgesia. 1988;67(11):1082-8. [DOI:10.1213/00000539-198867110-00011] [PMID]
28. Arita H, Hayashida M, Shu H, Xu H, Sekiyama H, Hanaoka K. [Application of herb medicine in pain clinic--focusing on the basic research of Aconiti tuber]. Masui The Japanese journal of anesthesiology. 2007;56 Suppl:S199-211.
29. Bao YM, Luo F, Wei JH. [Forty cases of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome treated by acupuncture and crude herb moxibustion]. Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion. 2011;31(6):571-2.
30. Fan H, Li TF, Gong N, Wang YX. Shanzhiside methylester, the principle effective iridoid glycoside from the analgesic herb Lamiophlomis rotata, reduces neuropathic pain by stimulating spinal microglial beta-endorphin expression. Neuropharmacology. 2016;101:98-109. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.09.010] [PMID]
31. Ghanbari-Niaki A, Rahmati-Ahmadabad S. Effects of a fixed-intensity of endurance training and pistacia atlantica supplementation on ATP-binding cassette G4 expression. Chinese medicine. 2013;8(1):23. [DOI:10.1186/1749-8546-8-23] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Ghanbari-Niaki A, Rahmati-Ahmadabad S, Zare-Kookandeh N. ABCG8 Gene Responses to 8 Weeks Treadmill Running With or Without Pistachia atlantica (Baneh) Extraction in Female Rats. International journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2012;10(4):604-10. [DOI:10.5812/ijem.5305] [PMID] [PMCID]
33. Kakilashvili B, Zurabashvili DZ, Turabelidze DG, Shanidze LA, Parulava GK. [The fatty acid composition of ordinary flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) cultivated in Georgia and its byological activity]. Georgian medical news. 2014(227):86-8. [PMID]
34. Kargar R, Forouzanfar M, Ghalamkari G, Nasr Esfahani MH. Dietary flax seed oil and/or Vitamin E improve sperm parameters of cloned goats following freezing-thawing. Cryobiology. 2017;74:110-4. [DOI:10.1016/j.cryobiol.2016.11.007] [PMID]
35. Mirfatahi M, Tabibi H, Nasrollahi A, Hedayati M, Taghizadeh M. Effect of flaxseed oil on serum systemic and vascular inflammation markers and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients: a randomized controlled trial. International urology and nephrology. 2016;48(8):1335-41. [DOI:10.1007/s11255-016-1300-5] [PMID]
36. Bell JA, Griinari JM, Kennelly JJ. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat. Journal of dairy science. 2006;89(2):733-48. [DOI:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72135-X]
37. Tuluce Y, Ozkol H, Koyuncu I. Photoprotective effect of flax seed oil (Linum usitatissimum L.) against ultraviolet C-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in rats. Toxicology and industrial health. 2012;28(2):99-107. [DOI:10.1177/0748233711407239] [PMID]
38. Williams D, Verghese M, Walker LT, Boateng J, Shackelford L, Chawan CB. Flax seed oil and flax seed meal reduce the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in Fisher 344 male rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2007;45(1):153-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2006.08.014] [PMID]
39. Shirvani H, Ghanbari-Niaki A, Rahmati-Ahmadabad S, sobhani V. Effects of endurance training and herb supplementation on tissue nesfatin-1/nucleobindin-2 and ghrelin mRNA expression. International Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology 2017;6(1):71-84. 40. Shafiee A, kordi M, Gaeini A, Soleimani M, Nekouei A, Hadidi V. The Effect of Eight Week of High Intensity Interval Training on Expression of Mir-210 and EphrinA3 Mrna in Soleus Muscle Healthy Male Rats. Arak Medical University Journal. 2014;17(3):26-34. [DOI:10.22631/ijaep.v6i1.118]
40. Hoydal MA, Wisloff U, Kemi OJ, Ellingsen O. Running speed and maximal oxygen uptake in rats and mice: practical implications for exercise training. European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology. 2007;14(6):753-60. [DOI:10.1097/HJR.0b013e3281eacef1] [PMID]
41. Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method. Methods. 2001;25(4):402-8. [DOI:10.1006/meth.2001.1262] [PMID]
42. Bannon AW, Malmberg AB. Models of nociception: hot-plate, tail-flick, and formalin tests in rodents. Current protocols in neuroscience. 2007;Chapter 8:Unit 8 9.
43. Soya H, Nakamura T, Deocaris CC, Kimpara A, Iimura M, Fujikawa T, et al. BDNF induction with mild exercise in the rat hippocampus. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2007;358(4):961-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.04.173] [PMID]
44. Lou SJ, Liu JY, Chang H, Chen PJ. Hippocampal neurogenesis and gene expression depend on exercise intensity in juvenile rats. Brain research. 2008;1210:48-55. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.02.080] [PMID]
45. Albeck DS, Sano K, Prewitt GE, Dalton L. Mild forced treadmill exercise enhances spatial learning in the aged rat. Behavioural brain research. 2006;168(2):345-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2005.11.008] [PMID]
46. Johnson RA, Rhodes JS, Jeffrey SL, Garland T, Jr., Mitchell GS. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor but not neurotrophin-3 increases more in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running. Neuroscience. 2003;121(1):1-7. [DOI:10.1016/S0306-4522(03)00422-6]
47. Nilsson M, Perfilieva E, Johansson U, Orwar O, Eriksson PS. Enriched environment increases neurogenesis in the adult rat dentate gyrus and improves spatial memory. Journal of neurobiology. 1999;39(4):569-78. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4695(19990615)39:4<569::AID-NEU10>3.0.CO;2-F [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4695(19990615)39:43.0.CO;2-F]
48. Nakamura H, Kobayashi S, Ohashi Y, Ando S. Age-changes of brain synapses and synaptic plasticity in response to an enriched environment. Journal of neuroscience research. 1999;56(3):307-15. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19990501)56:3<307::AID-JNR10>3.0.CO;2-3 [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4547(19990501)56:33.0.CO;2-3]
49. Naka F, Shiga T, Yaguchi M, Okado N. An enriched environment increases noradrenaline concentration in the mouse brain. Brain research. 2002;924(1):124-6. [DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(01)03257-7]
50. Juraska JM, Fitch JM, Washburne DL. The dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampal CA3 area. II. Effects of gender and the environment. Brain research. 1989;479(1):115-9. [DOI:10.1016/0006-8993(89)91341-3]
51. Stummer W, Weber K, Tranmer B, Baethmann A, Kempski O. Reduced mortality and brain damage after locomotor activity in gerbil forebrain ischemia. Stroke. 1994;25(9):1862-9. [DOI:10.1161/01.STR.25.9.1862] [PMID]
52. Schaaf MJ, de Jong J, de Kloet ER, Vreugdenhil E. Downregulation of BDNF mRNA and protein in the rat hippocampus by corticosterone. Brain research. 1998;813(1):112-20. [DOI:10.1016/S0006-8993(98)01010-5]
53. Smith MA, Makino S, Kvetnansky R, Post RM. Stress and glucocorticoids affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the hippocampus. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 1995;15(3 Pt 1):1768-77. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.15-03-01768.1995] [PMID]
54. Risedal A, Mattsson B, Dahlqvist P, Nordborg C, Olsson T, Johansson BB. Environmental influences on functional outcome after a cortical infarct in the rat. Brain research bulletin. 2002;58(3):315-21. [DOI:10.1016/S0361-9230(02)00796-7]
55. Lee TH, Jang MH, Shin MC, Lim BV, Kim YP, Kim H, et al. Dependence of rat hippocampal c-Fos expression on intensity and duration of exercise. Life sciences. 2003;72(12):1421-36. [DOI:10.1016/S0024-3205(02)02406-2]
56. Ploughman M, Granter-Button S, Chernenko G, Tucker BA, Mearow KM, Corbett D. Endurance exercise regimens induce differential effects on brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synapsin-I and insulin-like growth factor I after focal ischemia. Neuroscience. 2005;136(4):991-1001. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.08.037] [PMID]
57. Griesbach GS, Hovda DA, Molteni R, Wu A, Gomez-Pinilla F. Voluntary exercise following traumatic brain injury: brain-derived neurotrophic factor upregulation and recovery of function. Neuroscience. 2004;125(1):129-39. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.01.030] [PMID]
58. Shaw KN, Commins S, O'Mara SM. Deficits in spatial learning and synaptic plasticity induced by the rapid and competitive broad-spectrum cyclooxygenase inhibitor ibuprofen are reversed by increasing endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The European journal of neuroscience. 2003;17(11):2438-46. [DOI:10.1046/j.1460-9568.2003.02643.x] [PMID]
59. Coelho FG, Gobbi S, Andreatto CA, Corazza DI, Pedroso RV, Santos-Galduroz RF. Physical exercise modulates peripheral levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF): a systematic review of experimental studies in the elderly. Archives of gerontology and geriatrics. 2013;56(1):10-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.archger.2012.06.003] [PMID]
60. Tapia-Arancibia L, Rage F, Givalois L, Arancibia S. Physiology of BDNF: focus on hypothalamic function. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology. 2004;25(2):77-107. [DOI:10.1016/j.yfrne.2004.04.001] [PMID]
61. Carro E, Nunez A, Busiguina S, Torres-Aleman I. Circulating insulin-like growth factor I mediates effects of exercise on the brain. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience. 2000;20(8):2926-33. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.20-08-02926.2000] [PMID]
62. Berchtold NC, Kesslak JP, Pike CJ, Adlard PA, Cotman CW. Estrogen and exercise interact to regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus. The European journal of neuroscience. 2001;14(12):1992-2002. [DOI:10.1046/j.0953-816x.2001.01825.x] [PMID]
63. Schaaf MJ, De Kloet ER, Vreugdenhil E. Corticosterone effects on BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Implications for memory formation. Stress. 2000;3(3):201-8. [DOI:10.3109/10253890009001124] [PMID]
64. Russo-Neustadt A, Ha T, Ramirez R, Kesslak JP. Physical activity-antidepressant treatment combination: impact on brain-derived neurotrophic factor and behavior in an animal model. Behavioural brain research. 2001;120(1):87-95. [DOI:10.1016/S0166-4328(00)00364-8]
65. Neeper SA, Gomez-Pinilla F, Choi J, Cotman C. Exercise and brain neurotrophins. Nature. 1995;373(6510):109. [DOI:10.1038/373109a0] [PMID]
66. Paul J, Gottmann K, Lessmann V. NT-3 regulates BDNF-induced modulation of synaptic transmission in cultured hippocampal neurons. Neuroreport. 2001;12(12):2635-9. [DOI:10.1097/00001756-200108280-00010] [PMID]
67. Bodnar RJ, Kelly DD, Spiaggia A, Ehrenberg C, Glusman M. Dose-dependent reductions by naloxone of analgesia induced by cold-water stress. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior. 1978;8(6):667-72. [DOI:10.1016/0091-3057(78)90264-2]
68. Christie MJ, Chesher GB, Bird KD. The correlation between swim-stress induced antinociception and [3H] leu-enkephalin binding to brain homogenates in mice. Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior. 1981;15(6):853-7. [DOI:10.1016/0091-3057(81)90042-3]
69. Yao T, Andersson S, Thoren P. Long-lasting cardiovascular depressor response following sciatic stimulation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Evidence for the involvement of central endorphin and serotonin systems. Brain research. 1982;244(2):295-303. [DOI:10.1016/0006-8993(82)90088-9]
70. Geisser ME, Wang W, Smuck M, Koch LG, Britton SL, Lydic R. Nociception before and after exercise in rats bred for high and low aerobic capacity. Neuroscience letters. 2008;443(1):37-40. [DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.07.040] [PMID] [PMCID]
71. Khalatbari Soltani S, Jamaluddin R, Tabibi H, Mohd Yusof BN, Atabak S, Loh SP, et al. Effects of flaxseed consumption on systemic inflammation and serum lipid profile in hemodialysis patients with lipid abnormalities. Hemodialysis international International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis. 2013;17(2):275-81. [DOI:10.1111/j.1542-4758.2012.00754.x] [PMID]
72. Devaraj S, Jialal I. Alpha tocopherol supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and monocyte interleukin-6 levels in normal volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients. Free radical biology & medicine. 2000;29(8):790-2. [DOI:10.1016/S0891-5849(00)00420-2]
73. Upritchard JE, Sutherland WH, Mann JI. Effect of supplementation with tomato juice, vitamin E, and vitamin C on LDL oxidation and products of inflammatory activity in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care. 2000;23(6):733-8. [DOI:10.2337/diacare.23.6.733] [PMID]
74. Goyal A, Sharma V, Sihag MK, Singh AK, Arora S, Sabikhi L. Fortification of dahi (Indian yoghurt) with omega-3 fatty acids using microencapsulated flaxseed oil microcapsules. Journal of food science and technology. 2016;53(5):2422-33. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-016-2220-1] [PMID] [PMCID]
75. Goyal A, Sharma V, Upadhyay N, Singh AK, Arora S, Lal D, et al. Development of stable flaxseed oil emulsions as a potential delivery system of omega-3 fatty acids. Journal of food science and technology. 2015;52(7):4256-65. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-014-1370-2] [PMID] [PMCID]
76. Costantino D, Guaraldi C, Costantino M, Bounous VE. [Use of alpha-lipoic acid and omega-3 in postpartum pain treatment]. Minerva ginecologica. 2015;67(5):465-73. [PMID]
77. Maroon JC, Bost JW. Omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) as an anti-inflammatory: an alternative to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for discogenic pain. Surgical neurology. 2006;65(4):326-31. [DOI:10.1016/j.surneu.2005.10.023] [PMID]
78. Goldberg RJ, Katz J. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain. 2007;129(1-2):210-23. [DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2007.01.020] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb