year 6, Issue 1 (Spring 2018)                   Ann. Appl. Sport Sci 2018, 6(1): 11-19 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Saeedy M, Bijeh N, Moazzami M. The Effect of Six Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training With Zinc Supplementation on Some Humoral Immunity Markers in Female Futsal Players. Ann. Appl. Sport Sci. 2018; 6 (1) :11-19
1- Exercise Physiology Department, Faculty of Physical Education and ‎Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2- Exercise Physiology Department, Faculty of Physical Education and ‎Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran ,
Abstract:   (2379 Views)
Background. It seems strenuous trainings have a suppressing effect on the immune function and athletes performing such trainings are probably prone to infectious diseases due to weakened immune system.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of six weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with and without zinc ‎supplementation on serum immunoglobulin concentrations in female futsal players.

Mthods. Thirty-two female futsal players were randomly divided into 4 groups like placebo, Zinc, HIIT+Placebo ‎and Zinc+HIIT. All athletes had to attend futsal-specific training 3 sessions per week. Zinc and Placebo groups took ‎30 mg ‎day−1 of zinc gluconate or dextrose, respectively, and HIIT groups performed 6-10 repetitions of a 30-second running at 100% of VO2peak with ‎4-minutes rest between the efforts during six weeks.
Results. IgM levels decreased significantly in 
placebo group (from 136.25±34.44 to 119±33.53, p=0.003) and Zinc group (from 143.25±52.96 to 123.62±50.33, p=0.005). 6 weeks of HIIT did not change the levels of IgA, IgM and IgG significantly (p>0.05). HIIT along with Zinc augmented IgA value (from 179.75±54.49 to 211.12±89.22, p=0.049), significantly; It also increased IgM‎ and IgG levels which were not significant (p>0.05).
Conclusion. It can be concluded that 6 weeks of HIIT had no suppressing effect on the immune system in female futsal players; even HIIT along with Zinc supplementation improved the immune system via increasing IgA value.
Full-Text [PDF 593 kb]   (462 Downloads)    
• Six weeks ofhigh intensity interval training combined with zinc supplement is recommended to improve the immune system in female futsal players.
• Six weeks of
high intensity interval training had no suppressing effect on the immune system in female futsal players.
• Six weeks of Zinc supplementation had an adverse effect on the immune system through reducing IgM values in female futsal players.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2016/11/16 | Accepted: 2017/03/15 | Published: 2018/05/11

1. Azarbayjani MA, Nikbakht H. The effect of continuous and intermittent training on resting level and acute response of salivary IgA and total protein in male basketball players. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences. 2010;12.
2. Owen AL, Wong DP, Dunlop G, Groussard C, Kebsi W, Dellal A, et al. High-intensity training and salivary immunoglobulin a responses in professional top-level soccer players: effect of training intensity. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2016;30(9):2460-9. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000380] [PMID]
3. Lee N, Kim J, Am Hyung G, Park JH, Kim SJ, Kim HB, et al. Training effects on immune function in judoists. Asian journal of sports medicine. 2015;6(3). [DOI:10.5812/asjsm.24050] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Shirvani H, Ghahreman Tabrizi K, Sobhani V. Effects of high intensity intermittent exercise on serum Immunoglobulin's and Complement system response in youth soccer players. Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences. 2013;20(3):233-43.
5. Talebi K, Hejazi SM, Mottaghi MR, Basiry Moqadam M, Irani H, Gholami Koopaie M. Effect of intense exercise on the concentration of immunoglobulin A and salivary cortisol in swimmers. The Horizon of Medical Sciences. 2013;18(4):191-6.
6. Jalili A KH-A, Z s. The Effect of an Intense Anaerobic Exercise Session on Serum Levels of IgG, IgM and IgA in Handball, Volleyball and Climbing sports. International Journal of Medical Laboratory. 2015;2:50-7.
7. Walsh N. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on saliva IgA, total protein and alpha-amylase. Journal of sports sciences. 1999;17(2):129-34. [DOI:10.1080/026404199366226] [PMID]
8. Y X. The Research on the Influence of High Intensity Training to Rowing Athlete's ‎IgG, IgA, IgM. Journal Jilin Institute Physical Education. 2009;3:32-7.
9. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Cellular and molecular immunology E-book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
10. Gleeson M. Immune function in sport and exercise. Journal of applied physiology. 2007;103(2):693-9. [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00008.2007] [PMID]
11. A AB, S C, M.R K. The effect of a bout of soccer-specific ‎exercise on IgA‏, ‏IgG, IgM and salivary cortisol in male soccer players. Sports ‎physiology. 2012;15:83-96.
12. K‏ I, E B, Wilson J ea. Harrisons ‎Principles of Internal ‎Medicine. New York. Mcgraw-Hill. 1994.
13. Moulds JM, Warner NB, Arnett FC. Quantitative and antigenic differences in complement component C4 between American blacks and whites. Complement and inflammation. 1991;8:281-7. [DOI:10.1159/000463197] [PMID]
14. Bassit RA, Sawada LcA, Bacurau RF, Navarro F, Martins E, Santos RV, et al. Branched-chain amino acid supplementation and the immune response of long-distance athletes. Nutrition. 2002;18(5):376-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0899-9007(02)00753-0]
15. Mero A, Kahkonen J, Nykanen T, Parviainen T, Jokinen I, Takala T, et al. IGF-I, IgA, and IgG responses to bovine colostrum supplementation during training. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2002;93(2):732-9. [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.00002.2002] [PMID]
16. de Sousa MV, Madsen K, Fukui R, Santos A, da Silva MER. Carbohydrate supplementation delays DNA damage in elite runners during intensive microcycle training. European journal of applied physiology. 2012;112(2):493-500. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-011-2000-6] [PMID]
17. Crooks C, Cross ML, Wall C, Ali A. Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on respiratory tract mucosal defenses in swimmers. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2010;20(3):224-35. [DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.20.3.224] [PMID]
18. Knab AM, Nieman DC, Gillitt ND, Shanely RA, Cialdella-Kam L, Henson DA, et al. Effects of a flavonoid-rich juice on inflammation, oxidative stress, and immunity in elite swimmers: a metabolomics-based approach. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2013;23(2):150-60. [DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.23.2.150] [PMID]
19. Crooks CV, Wall CR, Cross ML, Rutherfurd-Markwick KJ. The effect of bovine colostrum supplementation on salivary IgA in distance runners. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2006;16(1):47-64. [DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.16.1.47] [PMID]
20. Prasad AS. Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells. Molecular medicine. 2008;14(5-6):353. [DOI:10.2119/2008-00033.Prasad] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Prasad AS. Discovery of Human Zinc Deficiency: Its Impact on Human Health and Disease–. Advances in nutrition. 2013;4(2):176-90. [DOI:10.3945/an.112.003210] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Micheletti A, Rossi R, Rufini S. Zinc status in athletes. Sports medicine. 2001;31(8):577-82. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200131080-00002] [PMID]
23. Al-Maroof RA, Al-Sharbatti SS. Serum zinc levels in diabetic patients and effect of zinc supplementation on glycemic control of type 2 diabetics. Saudi medical journal. 2006;27(3):344-50. [PMID]
24. Maiguma M, Suzuki Y, Suzuki H, Okazaki K, Aizawa M, Muto M, et al. Dietary zinc is a key environmental modifier in the progression of IgA nephropathy. PloS one. 2014;9(2):e90558. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090558] [PMID] [PMCID]
25. Singh A, Failla ML, Deuster PA. Exercise-induced changes in immune function: effects of zinc supplementation. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1994;76(6):2298-303. [DOI:10.1152/jappl.1994.76.6.2298] [PMID]
26. K H, R AH. The effect of selected exercise on serum ‎immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG and IgM) in ‎middle-endurance elite runners. IJSS. 2012;2:509-14.
27. G M. Total levels of IgM, IgA, IgG, C3, and C4 in ABO blood group. Arak ‎Medical University Journal. 2013;16:45-50.
28. M S, D K. The effect of high intensity interval training and moderate ‎continuous training on aerobic and anaerobic indices in athlete men‏. Sports physiology. 2013;18:39-52.
29. S A, M.J HZ, Mohajeri Tehrani M.R ea. The effect of Zinc ‎supplementation on serum lipids level and hs-CRP in diabetic individuals with over ‎weight. IJDLD. 2011;10:614-20.
30. Gaeini A, Choobineh S, Shafiei Neek L, Satarifard S, Mahmoodzadeh M, Yar Beigi K. Effect of Zinc supplementation on serum testosterone and plasma lactate in male cyclist after one bout of exhaustive exercise. journal of shahrekord university of medical sciences. 2012;14(3).
31. Xing J-Q, Zhou Y, Fang W, Huang A-Q, Li S-B, Li S-H, et al. The effect of pre-competition training on biochemical indices and immune function of volleyball players. International journal of clinical and experimental medicine. 2013;6(8):712. [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Tsubakihara T, Umeda T, Takahashi I, Matsuzaka M, Iwane K, Tanaka M, et al. Effects of soccer matches on neutrophil and lymphocyte functions in female university soccer players. Luminescence. 2013;28(2):129-35. [DOI:10.1002/bio.2351] [PMID]
33. A.H P, R G, S A. Futsal physiology. 2nd ed:Iran. Avaye ‎zohour. 2012.
34. Boes M. Role of natural and immune IgM antibodies in immune responses. Molecular immunology. 2000;37(18):1141-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0161-5890(01)00025-6]
35. Tsiantoulas D, Diehl CJ, Witztum JL, Binder CJ. B cells and humoral immunity in atherosclerosis. Circulation research. 2014;114(11):1743-56. [DOI:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.113.301145] [PMID] [PMCID]
36. Nezlin R. The immunoglobulins: structure and function: Academic Press; 1998.
37. Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK. Stress-induced immune dysfunction: implications for health. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2005;5(3):243. [DOI:10.1038/nri1571] [PMID]
38. Nieman DC, Nehlsen-Cannarella SL. The effects of acute and chronic exercise on immunoglobulins. Sports Medicine. 1991;11(3):183-201. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-199111030-00003] [PMID]
39. Yamabe H, Ozawa K, Fukushi K, Ohsawa H, Chiba N, Onodera K. Elevated salivary IgA in patients with IgA nephropathy. Nephron. 1987;45(2):176-. [DOI:10.1159/000184111] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb