year 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2017)                   Ann. Appl. Sport Sci 2017, 5(3): 63-68 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Strielkowski W, Shishkin A. Paralympic Judo: Is there Evidence for Match Rigging among Athletes with Disabilities?. Ann. Appl. Sport Sci. 2017; 5 (3) :63-68
1- Professor Cambridge Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom ,
2- Professor Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russian Federation
Abstract:   (925 Views)
Objectives. This paper studies the existence or non-existence of match-fixing (or rigging) among judo wrestlers (judoka) with disabilities during the consecutive Paralympic Games from 1988 until 2016.
Methods. In our analysis, we use the institutional framework that makes it easy understand and model the incentives of the wrestlers using the readily available data. Our data set consists of official judo matches that took place during the Paralympic Games from Seoul in 1988 to Rio in 2016. We analyze the distribution of wins across judokas, the medal count at the end of each medal tournaments.
Results. Our results are quite similar across specifications. There is no significant evidence to prove that some Paralympic judokas tend to be victorious more often on average than it might be expected.
Conclusions. We find no evidence can be found to document match rigging in Paralympic judo wrestling. Our analysis does not confirm the corruption story or rule out effort as the explanation. While the incentive structure of promotion leads to gains from trade between wrestlers on the margin for achieving a winning record and their opponents in some other sports with athletes winning a disproportionate share of the matches when they are on the margin, this does not seem to be the case of Paralympic judo. Reciprocity agreements between Paralympic judo teams from different countries are unlikely to exist, suggesting that collusive behavior is carried out solely by individual actors.
Full-Text [PDF 327 kb]   (183 Downloads)    

• Match-fixing (also known as match rigging) is, alongside with recent doping scandals, one of the most serious issues of modern-day sport. The problem has reached the Olympic movement and the Paralympic Games.
• We study the possibility of match-fixing among judo wrestlers (judoka) with disabilities during the consecutive Paralympic Games from 1988 until 2016 and find no evidence of such behavior.

Type of Study: Rapid Communications | Subject: Sport Management and its related branches
Received: 2017/03/8 | Accepted: 2017/10/12 | Published: 2017/12/2

1. Imamura R, Johnson B. Judo. Sports Biomechanics. 2002; 2: 191-201. [DOI:10.1080/14763140308522817] [PMID]
2. Miarka B, Del Vecchio F, Julianetti R, Cury R, Camey S, Franchini E. Time-motion and tactical analysis of Olympic judo fighters. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 2016; 16(1): 133-142. [DOI:10.1080/24748668.2016.11868876]
3. Chang I, Crossman J. When there is a will, there is a way: A quantitative comparison of the newspaper coverage of the 2004 summer Paralympic and Olympic Games. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 2009; 2: 16-34.
4. Duval A. The Russian doping scandal at the court of arbitration for sport: lessons for the world anti-doping system. The International Sports Law Journal. 2017; 16(3-4): 177-197. [DOI:10.1007/s40318-017-0107-6]
5. Carpenter K. Match-fixing – The biggest threat to sport in the 21st century? International Sports Law Review. 2012; 2: 13–24.
6. Tak M, Sam M, Jackson S. The politics of countermeasures against match-fixing in sport: A political sociology approach to policy instruments. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 2016; 1012690216639748 [DOI:10.1177/1012690216639748]
7. Goodger BC, Goodger JM. Judo in the Light of Theory and Sociological Research. International Review for Sociology of Sport. 1977; 2:5-34. [DOI:10.1177/101269027701200201]
8. Tamari T. Body Image and Prosthetic Aesthetics: Disability, Technology and Paralympic Culture. Body & Society. 2017; 23(2): 25-56. [DOI:10.1177/1357034X17697364]
9. Pappous A, Hayday E. A case study investigating the impact of the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games on participation in two non-traditional English sports, Judo and Fencing. Leisure studies. 2016; 35(5): 668-684. [DOI:10.1080/02614367.2015.1035314]
10. Bag P, Saha B. Match-Fixing in a Monopoly Betting Market. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy. 2017; 26(1): 257-289. [DOI:10.1111/jems.12172]
11. Paralympic movement. 2017 [2017 August 1] Available at:
12. Dietl, H. M., Lang, M., Werner, S. Corruption in professional Sumo: An update on the study of Duggan and Levitt. Journal of sports economics. 2010; 11(4): 383-396. [DOI:10.1177/1527002509349028]
13. Fudenberg D, Tirole J. Game theory. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; 1991.
14. Gouthon P, Kouassi J, N\'Guessan K, Bio-Nigan I, Tonon B, Nouatin B, Akplogan B. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Regarding Muscular Reinforcement among Judokas in Developing Countries: Case Study of the Republic of Benin. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2015; 3(2): 11-22. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.aassjournal.3.2.11]
15. Jahani Golbar S, Gharakhanlou R, Barmaki S, Khazani A, Khorshidi-Hosseini M. A comparison of Age Average of Iranian Medal Winners in Olympic and Asian Games to their Counterparts from Selected Countries. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2015; 3(4): 69-75. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.aassjournal.3.4.69]
16. Chappelet J. The Olympic fight against match-fixing. Sport in Society, 2015; 18(10): 1260-1272. [DOI:10.1080/17430437.2015.1034519]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
Write the security code in the box

Send email to the article author

© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb