Articles In Press / Online First                   Back to the articles list | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Sports Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, 06560 Ankara, Turkey ,
2- Sports Sciences Faculty, Gazi University, 06560 Ankara, Turkey
3- Institute of Turkish Revolution History, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey
Abstract:   (547 Views)
Background. The skiing was first used in the history of mankind for transportation and hunting in the Altay Mountains, where harsh and long winter conditions exist. The use of skiing continued in many cultures and eventually turned into a sport where not the Winter Olympic Games serve as a venue for the competition.
Objectives. This review aims to outline the phases of skiing and highlight how it started as means of transportation and hunting vehicle in nomadic Turkic tribes in the Altay region to meet the vital needs of the people and continued to develop as a sport during the thousands of years of adventure until the Winter Olympic Games and the cultural importance of ski in the nomadic Turkic tribes in the Altay Region.
Methods. In the first stage of the study, the journey of two pieces of wood (ski) is analyzed, which were invented even before the wheel. In the second phase, we analyzed the technical development of this invention and its use during the wars. In the third phase, we examined how ski transformed into a sports branch and different disciplines. Results. In the researchers examined in the study, it has been mentioned that skiing starts from the vital need point and spread through migration and then used as a means of transportation and war. Attention has been drawn to the journey of rapidly spreading skiing into a modern Olympic sport. Today, skiing has become a sports branch and tourism which is made in large masses in the world.
Conclusion. Skiing started from the vital need point by the nomadic Turkic tribes. The use of skies spread through migration and then used as a means of transportation and war. Thanks to this long journey of two pieces of wood, it has an essential place in the world in terms of economy, tourism, and sports.
Full-Text [PDF 375 kb]   (135 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Sociology and History
Received: 2020/06/25 | Accepted: 2020/09/26

1. Huntford R. Two planks and a passion: The dramatic history of skiing, Printed by MPG Books Ltd, Cornwall UK2009.
2. Krüger A. The history of the Olympic Games, the invention of tradition, In M. Goksøyr, G. von der Lippe & K. Mo (Eds.). Sankt Augustion: Winter Games, Warm Traditions, Academia; 1996.
3. Oliver E. The first nine books of the Danish history of saxo: Publicatons of the Folklore Society; 1893.
4. Togan ZV. Eski Türkler'de kayakçılık.: Askeri Mecmua; 1939.
5. Amstutz and Max D. The Golden Age of Alpin Skiing, AS Verlag & Buchkonzept AG, Zurich2010.
6. Hess J. Zur Geschichte des Skis, Vox Romanica1937.
7. Salman H. Eski Türk topluluklarında kayakçılık. Türk Araştırmaları Dergisi, sayı 202008.
8. Olrik J, Raeder H. Saxo Grammaticus, Saxonis Gesta Danorum, Copenhagen1931.
9. Burov and Grigori M. Some Mesolithic wooden artefacts from the site of Vis I in the European North-east of the USSR in Clive Bonsall (Ed) The Mesolithic in Europe, Papers presented at the Third International Symposium. Edinburgh: John Donalds (Eds.); 1985.
10. Schlesinger P. Mathias Zdarsky, the pioneer of alpine skiing. America Alpine J. 1942;3:403-404.
11. Allen J. Zdarsky, Mathias, The father of alpine skiing. Skiing Heritage J. 2008;1:8-14.
12. Öngel HB. Türk kültür tarihinde spor, T.C Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, Ankara2001.
13. Jenkis M. First skier, National Geographic. 2013;224(6):85-101.
14. Allen J. Historical dictionary of skiing, Toronto: The Scarecrow Press Inc., Lanham, Playmouth UK2012.
15. Hu H. Turfan ve Komşu bölgelerdeki runik yazıtlarla ilgili epigrafik ve fotogrametrik araştırmalar adlı proje kapsamında 2010 yılında yapılan çalışmalar, Uluslararası Türkçe Edebiyat Kültür Eğitim Dergisi. 2010 42-52.
16. Khazanov MA. Nomads and the outside World, The University of Wisconsin Press1994.
17. Günal Z. İslam öncesi Türk tarihi ve kültürü, Nobel yayınevi. 2004:7.
18. Ögel B. İslamiyetten önce Türk kültür tarihi: orta asya kaynak ve buluntularına göre, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yay. 2001:56-59.
19. Yılmaz A. Türk kültür terminolojisinde göç kavramı üzerine, Modern Türklük Araştırmaları Dergisi. 2010;7(2):14-33. [DOI:10.1501/MTAD.7.2010.2.18]
20. Gömeç S. Kök Türk Tarihi, Berikan yayınevi, Ankara. 2016:41-66.
21. Hobsbawm E. Introduction inventing traditions, In E. Hobsbawm & S. Engelhardt (Eds.), Cambridge: The Invention of Tradition Cambridge University Press. 1984:14, 175.
22. Eberhard W. Çin kaynaklarına göre Türkler ve komşularında spor, Ülkü Dergisi. Mayıs. 1940:209-215.
23. Veaceslav M. he idea of olympism, philosophical concept about The World, Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series IX: Sciences of Human Kinetics. 2017;10(1):9-14.
24. Kaşgarlı M. Divânü lügâti't-Türk, çev. Besim Atalay, TDK Yay., cilt I, 4. Baskı, Ankara. 1998:386.
25. Onay İ. İslam öncesi Türk kültüründe avcılığın temelleri ve iktisadi, Askeri, Dini Değeri, Uluslararası Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi.8(41):516-525. [DOI:10.17719/jisr.20154115037]
26. Magnus O. A description of the northern peoples, Hakluyt Society, Rome. 1998:80-224.
27. Emahusen JH. Exercises voon einer Compagnie Schii-Leuffers auf denen Schiihen, Der Winter. 1936;29:90-93.
28. Stevens S. Olympism and ontological structures of understanding diagoras, International Academic Journal on Olympic Studies. 2017;1:249-226.
29. Allen J. 100 Years of International Skiing, FIS Congress Publishing, Antalya. 2010;2(14):33-34.
30. Petersen P. The Essential cross countyr skier: A step-by-step guide: Ragged Mountain Press, USA; 2000.
31. Schantz O. "The olympic ideal and the Winter Games attitudest towards the Olympic Winter Games in olympic discourses-from Coubertin to Samaranch", Presentation at the Japanese Olympic Academy, Tokyo1997.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb