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1- Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
2- Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. , syaheeda@usm.my
3- Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, School of Physical Education, Sport Science and Dietetics, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece.
4- Department of Rehabilitation College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
5- Division of Sport, Physical Activity and Health, University of Teacher Education Upper Austria, Linz, Austria.
6- Department of Sports Management, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Kirikkale University, Kirikkale, Turkey.
7- Department of General Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.
8- Department of Physical Education and Special Motricity, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania.
Abstract:   (213 Views)
Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity present substantial challenges to global public health, marked by their widespread prevalence and associated morbidities. The ensuing complications, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome, cancer, liver disease, and neurodegeneration, underscore the urgent need for effective preventive measures. Despite this, primary prevention of CVD in individuals with T2DM and obesity remains inadequate. Regular exercise emerges as a pivotal factor in ameliorating various cardiometabolic parameters, yet conflicting findings persist regarding the impact of exercise parameters (frequency, intensity, time, and type) on lipid homeostasis.
Objectives. This review endeavors to scrutinize the effects of diverse exercise types and parameters on individuals with T2DM and concurrent obesity. A focus is placed on investigating the influence of exercise on conventional lipids, such as LDL-C, HDL-C, TG, total TC, and VLDL-C. Additionally, the review briefly delves into the mechanisms underlying exercise-induced effects on lipids and lipoproteins.
Methods. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases.
Results. Regular exercise proves instrumental in elevating HDL-C levels while concurrently reducing TG, TC, VLDL, and LDL-C. Notably, exercise mitigates CVD risk, lowers BMI, and enhances insulin resistance, contingent on exercise types, volume, intensity, frequency, and duration.
Conclusion. Future research must delve into the dose-response effects of real-world exercise programs to guide tailored interventions. This comprehensive understanding should inform clinicians and practitioners, empowering them to prescribe personalized exercise regimens for individuals grappling with compromised metabolic health.
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APPLICABLE REMARKS
  • ​Physical activity induces beneficial changes in blood lipid levels among patients with obesity and T2DM.
  • Exercise increases HDL-C and lowers plasma TG concentrations, TC, VLDL, and LDL-C.
  • Engaging in adequate and regular physical exercise also reduces the risk of insulin resistance and CVD.
  • Exercise-induced positive alterations are dependent on the exercise training parameters.

Type of Study: Review Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2023/12/8 | Accepted: 2024/02/4

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