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Uncorrected proofs: articles that have been copy edited and formatted, but have not been finalized yet. They still need to be proof-read and corrected by the author(s) as well as by the managing editors and the text could still change before final publication.



Abstract (752 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (331 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • It is suggested that Iran should have a say in sports like gymnastics, athletics, and swimming at the world level. This could be achieved when any involved organization pays special attention to sports. According to the results of this study, suggestions are made to pay more consideration to education and training, as well as to advance the situation in the country.
  • Due to the educational weakness dimension, it is recommended to use the word physical activity used in the content of preschool and primary school textbooks.
  • Concerning the lack of sports facilities and equipment, it is suggested that the country's schools be equipped with appropriate and quality sports facilities and equipment under sports and educational goals in different educational courses.
  • According to the educational weakness dimension, it is suggested to look at physical education and sports activities as an important course and also as a factor for the development and reduction of physical and mental illnesses in society.
  • Due to the lack of human resources, it is proposed that physical education graduates and coaches be employed to educate children in schools and colleges.
  • Owing to managerial weakness, it is suggested the scientific approaches, goals, and strategies in the field of physical education be determined and the priorities are evaluated by senior physical education directors.
  • Due to the lack of financial resources, it is recommended to prevent the uncontrolled expansion of school sports, especially those not applicable in schools or unsafe concerning students' health.
  • Based on the individual factors, it is advised that special sports facilities and equipment be provided for people with special physical conditions. They are treated like healthy people so that they also have the right to exercise and receive training.

Abstract (94 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (24 Downloads)   |   Highlights
After stem cell therapy for knee OA, patients should be encouraged to have exercise programs including of WB and non - WB. It will improve the outcomes of stem cell therapy.

Abstract (118 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (43 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • Psychological skills training increased the self-efficacy beliefs and sporting performance of young handball players
  • Positive feedback strengthened the effect of the psychological skills training even more on self-efficacy beliefs and shot accuracy
  • Mainly the academic and the emotional part of the self-efficacy test increased after the psychological skills training accompanied by positive feedback

Abstract (78 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (25 Downloads)   |   Highlights
This study has revealed evidence of a correlation between sacroiliac joint dysfunction and the involvement of hip adductor muscles for the first time. According to the results of this study, it is recommended that patients with SIJ pain and dysfunction be examined for hip adductors.

Abstract (85 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (35 Downloads)   |   Highlights
This study provides a comprehensive insight into the physiological demands of female and male golf players during 18 holes golf game. It can be suggested that the female players should not compete in the same category with male players, despite the game is simplified by changing the length of the course. In addition to that, endurance training programs should be different due to the different cardiovascular requisites of golf game in females and males.

Abstract (241 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (135 Downloads)   |   Highlights
It is stated that none of authors has any conflict of interest during conduct and publishing of this research from start to an end.

Abstract (80 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (26 Downloads)   |   Highlights
In line with the results of this study, researchers recommend several things to the government, the community, and researchers. First, the government needs to provide adequate financial support for physical activities as a form of investment related to improving the quality of Indonesian human resources. This study has proven that physical activity carried out regularly can improve the quality of life of the culprit. Therefore, there needs to be a policy that encourages schools, government agencies, and non-governmental institutions, as well as the community to carry out physical activities regularly. Physical activity must be designed as an inexpensive activity so that the whole community can do it. In addition, program diversification needs to be done by taking into account demographic characteristics, local conditions, economic levels, and so on. Second, new awareness must be raised that physical activity is a necessity and therefore needs to be done regularly to fulfill it. The community has the right to receive sports services, including the availability of open space and sports human resources. If these rights have not been fulfilled, they need to be fought for.
Third, this research is ex post facto, in which the researcher does not give treatment to the subjects. So it cannot be ascertained that the positive impact on quality of life is solely as a result of physical activity undertaken by the subjects. Therefore, henceforth the same research needs to be done with an experimental approach. This research has succeeded in proving that physical activity has a positive impact on the psychological condition and health of the culprit, but at the same time has not succeeded in proving that sporting activities have a positive effect on social behavior. Related to this last thing, it needs to be studied further why it happened and is there something that is "wrong" in our sports. Research with a theme like this is still very rare to do, even though this needs to be done on a larger scale to provide empirical evidence as well as provide confidence to anyone, especially policymakers that sports development is an urgent matter.

Abstract (72 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (23 Downloads)   |   Highlights
This study supports that partial weight-bearing ground gait training in chronic stroke patients can improve the patients' walking ability.

Abstract (72 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (20 Downloads)   |   Highlights
The teacher should adapt PES learning conditions to the obese student by choosing the activity according to the students, their aptitudes, their level of ability and their motivations; Avoid placing the obese student in an awkward situation with his classmates; Group students who have been partially exempted in a single class, and offer them hours of support; Intervene with parents to incite obese students to follow a suitable diet and to try to practice adapted physical and sports activities.

Abstract (355 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (82 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Time-saving High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) can be used as an alternative to exercise therapy for people with obesity. To see the effect of the 45 bp I/D UCP2 gene requires further research with a larger number of participants and the availability of a more complete 45 bp I/D UCP2 genotype.

Abstract (280 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (121 Downloads)   |   Highlights
This study supports that YouTube based virtual BL can improve fundamental movement skills learning outcome of 5th grade students in elementary school.

Abstract (101 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (36 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Our data is applicable in the followings respects:
  • Continuous monitoring of athletes' level of emotional distress, especially among the vulnerable groups such as female and younger athletes, as shown in the data.
  • Ensuring psychosocial support services to these vulnerable population is easily accessible.

Abstract (311 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (97 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Up to 50% of the volleyball players performed the OSTRC injury prevention exercises. This finding may emphasize the importance of implementing these exercises to reduce the risk of sports-related injuries. 

Abstract (466 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (173 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The study offers, unlike other similar ones, the prevailing context diagram of the IDEF0 model for the implementation of the health care system for the formation of physical education among schoolchildren
  • Other studies may be devoted to the analysis of the main sports programs for the development of schoolchildren.
  • Other studies may include studies of the characteristics of physical education in a covid-19 setting.

Abstract (471 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (176 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • This article provides detailed suggestions for the inconsistent situation of golf coaches. These suggestions might be helpful to guide them to effectively train in the future. The theoretical model constructed for tacit knowledge transfer can be applied to research on other sports.
  • This study has some limitations. For instance, the model was constructed based solely on transfer and absorption capacities, but variables such as satisfaction, loyalty, and learning burnout could also have been included. Future studies should consider including other variables that could contribute to knowledge transfer performance, such as coaches’ sense of well-being or self-efficacy.

Abstract (534 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (200 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • This study is judged to be used as basic information in selecting taekwondo athletes.
  • This study is judged to be used as significant information in nurturing elite athletes as well as to confirm the relative age’s effect in various sports field.

Abstract (920 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (372 Downloads)   |   Highlights
The findings of this study could be beneficial for provincial government as the only policymakers in developing their own performances and reputation in the national scale sports events. This study also offers such insight in order to create performance-based equal pay among athletes nationally. This is aimed to minimize the problem of the hijacking practices from one province to other.

Abstract (522 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (224 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • Further work needs to be done to educate soccer players and coaches about the importance of implementing the CAE and its effectiveness in reducing groin injuries to enhance the CAE implementation.
  • Courses that emphasize most updated Evidence-Based Injury Prevention Programs and exercises such as the CAE should be mandatory for all soccer players and coaches.

Abstract (492 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (199 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Goalkeeper reactive diving performances (DT) are enhanced by similar mechanisms when ingesting caffeine or completing a PAPE drill. The ergogenic improvements are likely to be transferred to on-field performances on the basis that DT was enhanced within practically meaningful ranges.

Abstract (73 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (25 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • This study demonstrated the efficacy in implementing a psychological questionnaire aimed in determining the current and ongoing anxiety states, to predict plausible psycho-hormonal consequences on future sport performance. Measuring the innate anxiety states can provide valuable information on a player’s proneness for stress, not only at a psychological level, but also as seen with cortisol surges, which can have detrimental performance effects.
  • A few limitations were however identified. Testing a larger population would prove valuable, not only for excluding outliers from slanting the statistics, but also to determine dissimilarities between starters, non-starters, positions, and duration of play time (as found in previous research (25)) and more profound correlations between variables. Furthermore, analyzing testosterone together with cortisol and the psychological questionnaires will provide valuable insights into the psycho-hormonal relationships that take place.

Abstract (766 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (287 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • Based on the results of this study, it is believed that it can be used as meaningful information for calculating the Taekwondo rankings.
  • This study could be used more fairly in determining the rankings of Taekwondo athletes.

Abstract (487 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (220 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • PageRank algorithm has advantage of evaluating team and player’s performance more reasonably. In this study, MLB’s data is used and applied, but it is applicable in various kinds of sports such as football, basketball, tennis and others.
  • To apply it to many kinds of sports, it is required to confirm the validity of PageRank algorithm considering the features of each sports.

Abstract (723 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (264 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Considering the benefit of conducting meta-analysis by combining the results of multiple studies, it would be worthwhile to investigate the impact of leisure activities among different ethnic/cultural/gender groups to determine if the effect sizes are homogeneous.
Additionally the categorization or classification of preferred leisure activities can also be determined depending on different aspects of group.
Given our current study used depressive symptoms as a dependent variable, a future study may examine the similar mental health outcomes including anxiety, distress, or sadness.
The results of the present study may be applicable not only to older adults without disabilities but also to those who have specific disabilities (e.g., dementia, Alzheimer, or arthritis).
A majority of older adults have limited access to leisure programs and are lacking social contacts outside their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is important for health care and leisure professionals to develop preferred leisure activities that older adults can safely participate in during COVID-19 restrictions.

Abstract (701 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (259 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The present findings indicate a lack of concussion knowledge among female MMA fighters competing in MMA. This is a concern as this group is at risk for head trauma. Coaches and organizations should consider implementing appropriate measures to make sure athletes have the appropriate information regarding concussion and head trauma. Present findings also include important information researchers should consider when doing a study during a competition. Researchers should get the coaches involved; a successful pre- and post-competition evaluation could depend on their involvement as well as on an international team of researchers with a varied linguistic background.

Abstract (763 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (276 Downloads)   |   Highlights
The findings reported in this study suggest the use of selected external stimuli during fitness testing for more objective measurement of student performance and thus their motivation. The practitioner should build an environment in which subjects will be able to achieve their maximal performance. For NAS it is advisable to use verbal encouragement or performance feedback, and for PAS, a combination of external stimuli for selected fitness tests of explosive strength and speed abilities.

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