year 11, Issue 1 (Spring 2023)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2023, 11(1): 0-0 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Lim W. Perceived Exertion Responses to Exercise Differ for Progressively Increasing and Decreasing Order of Intensity: A Crossover Design Study. Ann Appl Sport Sci 2023; 11 (1)
Department of Physical Therapy, Rehabilitation Science Faculty, Woosong University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Woosong Institute of Rehabilitation Science, Rehabilitation Science Faculty, Woosong University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. ,
Abstract:   (1667 Views)
Background. The effects of exercise intensity on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) have been widely studied. However, in most of these studies, the contraction intensities were provided in a randomized order.
Objectives. This study aimed to examine the influence of intensity order on RPE.
Methods. During the first period, three trials of isometric contractions were performed at three different target intensities in the following order: 25%, 50%, 75% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in group A and in the reverse order: 75%, 50%, 25% of MVC in group B. Each group’s intensity order provided during the first period was reversed during the second period. The RPE was measured at each target intensity.
Results. There was a significant difference in the perceived intensity at 75% of MVC between groups during the first period. The perceived intensity of 75% of MVC in group A during the second period and group B during the first period was significantly lower than the target intensity.
Conclusion. The order of exercise intensity affected the perceived exertion responses in this study. When establishing an exercise program consisting of varying intensities, practitioners should consider the order of intensity implementation.
Full-Text [PDF 341 kb]   (464 Downloads)    
  • The order of intensity can affect the perceived exertion responses when the intensity is gradually decreased from high to low.
  • When establishing an exercise program consisting of varying intensities, practitioners should consider the order of intensity implementation.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Exercise, Training and Health
Received: 2022/02/2 | Accepted: 2022/03/17

1. Verdijk LB, van Loon L, Meijer K, Savelberg HHCM. One-repetition maximum strength test represents a valid means to assess leg strength in vivo in humans. J Sports Sci. 2009 Jan 1;27(1):59-68. [DOI:10.1080/02640410802428089] [PMID]
2. LeSuer DA, McCormick JH, Mayhew JL, Wasserstein RL, Arnold MD. The Accuracy of Prediction Equations for Estimating 1-RM performance in the Bench Press, Squat, and Deadlift. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 1997 Nov;11(4):211-3. [DOI:10.1519/00124278-199711000-00001]
3. Brzycki M. Strength Testing-Predicting a One-Rep Max from Reps-to-Fatigue. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 1993 Jan 1;64(1):88-90. [DOI:10.1080/07303084.1993.10606684]
4. Eston R, Evans HJL. The Validity of Submaximal Ratings of Perceived Exertion to Predict One Repetition Maximum. J Sports Sci Med. 2009 Dec 1;8(4):567-73.
5. Dawes HN, Barker KL, Cockburn J, Roach N, Scott O, Wade D. Borg's rating of perceived exertion scales: do the verbal anchors mean the same for different clinical groups? Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005 May;86(5):912-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.10.043] [PMID]
6. Eston R. Use of ratings of perceived exertion in sports. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012 Jun;7(2):175-82. [DOI:10.1123/ijspp.7.2.175] [PMID]
7. Pérez-Landaluce J, Fernández-García B, Rodríguez-Alonso M, García-Herrero F, García-Zapico P, Patterson AM, et al. Physiological differences and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in professional, amateur and young cyclists. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2002 Dec;42(4):389-95.
8. Day ML, McGuigan MR, Brice G, Foster C. Monitoring exercise intensity during resistance training using the session RPE scale. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 May;18(2):353-8. [DOI:10.1519/00124278-200405000-00027] [PMID]
9. Guidetti L, Sgadari A, Buzzachera CF, Broccatelli M, Utter AC, Goss FL, et al. Validation of the OMNI-cycle scale of perceived exertion in the elderly. J Aging Phys Act. 2011 Jul;19(3):214-24. [DOI:10.1123/japa.19.3.214] [PMID]
10. Habibi E, Dehghan H, Moghiseh M, Hasanzadeh A. Study of the relationship between the aerobic capacity (VO2 max) and the rating of perceived exertion based on the measurement of heart beat in the metal industries Esfahan. J Educ Health Promot [Internet]. 2014 Jun 23 [cited 2020 Feb 29];3. Available from:
11. Milanez VF, Pedro RE, Moreira A, Boullosa DA, Salle-Neto F, Nakamura FY. The role of aerobic fitness on session rating of perceived exertion in futsal players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011 Sep;6(3):358-66. [DOI:10.1123/ijspp.6.3.358] [PMID]
12. Jones LA. Perceptual constancy and the perceived magnitude of muscle forces. Exp Brain Res. 2003 Jul;151(2):197-203. [DOI:10.1007/s00221-003-1434-4] [PMID]
13. Pincivero DM, Coelho AJ, Campy RM. Perceived exertion and maximal quadriceps femoris muscle strength during dynamic knee extension exercise in young adult males and females. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003 Apr;89(2):150-6. [DOI:10.1007/s00421-002-0768-0] [PMID]
14. Row BS, Knutzen KM, Skogsberg NJ. Regulating explosive resistance training intensity using the rating of perceived exertion. J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Mar;26(3):664-71. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822ac367] [PMID]
15. Sheard PW, Smith PM, Paine TJ. Athlete compliance to therapist requested contraction intensity during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Man Ther. 2009 Oct;14(5):539-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2008.08.006] [PMID]
16. Mehta RK, Agnew MJ. Subjective evaluation of physical and mental workload interactions across different muscle groups. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2015;12(1):62-8. [DOI:10.1080/15459624.2014.942455] [PMID]
17. Pincivero DM, Gear WS. Quadriceps activation and perceived exertion during a high intensity, steady state contraction to failure. Muscle Nerve. 2000 Apr;23(4):514-20.<514::AID-MUS9>3.0.CO;2-4 [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(200004)23:43.0.CO;2-4]
18. Peñailillo L, Mackay K, Abbiss CR. Rating of Perceived Exertion During Concentric and Eccentric Cycling: Are We Measuring Effort or Exertion? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018 Apr 1;13(4):517-23. [DOI:10.1123/ijspp.2017-0171] [PMID]
19. Boat R, Atkins T, Davenport N, Cooper S. Prior self-control exertion and perceptions of pain and motivation during a physically effortful task. Prog Brain Res. 2018;240:19-34. [DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.08.007] [PMID]
20. Morishita S, Tsubaki A, Nakamura M, Nashimoto S, Fu JB, Onishi H. Rating of perceived exertion on resistance training in elderly subjects. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2019 Feb;17(2):135-42. [DOI:10.1080/14779072.2019.1561278] [PMID]
21. Borg E, Borg G. A comparison of AME and CR100 for scaling perceived exertion. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2002 Feb;109(2):157-75. [DOI:10.1016/S0001-6918(01)00055-5]
22. Lim W. Easy Method for Measuring Stretching Intensities in Real Clinical Settings and Effects of Different Stretching Intensities on Flexibility. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2019 Jul 23;32(4):579-85. [DOI:10.3233/BMR-181243] [PMID]
23. Ament W, Verkerke GJ. Exercise and fatigue. Sports Med. 2009;39(5):389-422. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200939050-00005] [PMID]
24. Borg G. Psychophysical scaling with applications in physical work and the perception of exertion. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1990;16 Suppl 1:55-8. [DOI:10.5271/sjweh.1815] [PMID]
25. Taylor JL, Gandevia SC. A comparison of central aspects of fatigue in submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions. J Appl Physiol. 2008 Feb;104(2):542-50. [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.01053.2007] [PMID]
26. Barth JL, Holding DH, Stamford BA. Risk versus effort in the assessment of motor fatigue. J Mot Behav. 1976 Sep;8(3):189-94. [DOI:10.1080/00222895.1976.10735071] [PMID]
27. Guo F, Sun Y-J, Zhang R-H. Perceived exertion during muscle fatigue as reflected in movement-related cortical potentials: an event-related potential study. Neuroreport. 2017 Feb 8;28(3):115-22. [DOI:10.1097/WNR.0000000000000732] [PMID]
28. Vera J, Jiménez R, García JA, Cárdenas D. Simultaneous Physical and Mental Effort Alters Visual Function. Optom Vis Sci. 2017;94(8):797-806. [DOI:10.1097/OPX.0000000000001105] [PMID]
29. Chang YK, Labban JD, Gapin JI, Etnier JL. The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res. 2012 May 9;1453:87-101. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2012.02.068] [PMID]
30. Lambourne K, Tomporowski P. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on cognitive task performance: a meta-regression analysis. Brain Res. 2010 Jun 23;1341:12-24. [DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.03.091] [PMID]
31. Marcora S. Perception of effort during exercise is independent of afferent feedback from skeletal muscles, heart, and lungs. J Appl Physiol. 2009 Jun;106(6):2060-2. [DOI:10.1152/japplphysiol.90378.2008] [PMID]
32. Mehta RK, Parasuraman R. Effects of mental fatigue on the development of physical fatigue: a neuroergonomic approach. Hum Factors. 2014 Jun;56(4):645-56. [DOI:10.1177/0018720813507279] [PMID]
33. Hallett M. Volitional control of movement: the physiology of free will. Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Jun;118(6):1179-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2007.03.019] [PMID] [PMCID]
34. Pincivero DM, Coelho AJ, Campy RM, Salfetnikov Y, Bright A. The effects of voluntary contraction intensity and gender on perceived exertion during isokinetic quadriceps exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001 Mar;84(3):221-6. [DOI:10.1007/s004210170008] [PMID]
35. Pincivero DM, Lephart SM, Moyna NM, Karunakara RG, Robertson RJ. Neuromuscular activation and RPE in the quadriceps at low and high isometric intensities. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1999 Feb;39(1):43-8.
36. Lim W. Optimal Intensity of PNF Stretching: Maintaining the Efficacy of Stretching While Ensuring Its Safety. J Phys Ther Sci. 2018 Aug;30(8):1108-11. [DOI:10.1589/jpts.30.1108] [PMID] [PMCID]
37. Lim W. Changes in Pain Following the Different Intensity of the Stretching and Types of Physical Stress. Phys Ther Korea. 2019 Nov;26(4):63-9. [DOI:10.12674/ptk.2019.26.4.063]
38. Ekkekakis P, Parfitt G, Petruzzello SJ. The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities: decennial update and progress towards a tripartite rationale for exercise intensity prescription. Sports Med. 2011 Aug 1;41(8):641-71. [DOI:10.2165/11590680-000000000-00000] [PMID]

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb