year 5, Issue 3 (Autumn 2017)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2017, 5(3): 31-38 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mohammadi V, Hilfiker R, Jafarnezhadgero A A, Jamialahmadi S, Karimizadeh Ardakani M, Granacher U. Relationship between Training-Induced Changes in the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Y Balance Test in Young Male Athletes. Ann Appl Sport Sci 2017; 5 (3) :31-38
1- Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran ,
2- School of Health Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland (HES-SO Valais-Wallis), Leukerbad, Switzerland
3- Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4- School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
5- Department of Sport Injuries, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
6- Division of Training and Movement Sciences, Research Focus Cognition Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
Abstract:   (26202 Views)
Background. Dynamic balance is often assessed in athletes using either the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) or the Y Balance Test (YBT). There is evidence that the results for the three common directions are not comparable. Thus, the question is open to debate as to which instrument is better suited to measure training-induced changes over time.
Objectives. The aim of this study is to compare the changes in the SEBT and the YBT, measured before and after six weeks of balance and strength exercise programmes in young and healthy athletes.
Methods. A total of 30 young male athletes aged 15–17 years participated in this study and were involved in a six-week combined training, including balance and strength exercise. During pre- and post-training periods, the SEBT and YBT were conducted in random order.
Results. The comparison between the changes in the SEBT and YBT with a paired sample T-test showed a significant increase in PM (p=0.001) and PL reach directions (p=0.000). No differences were observed in the A reach direction (p=0.38).
Conclusion. the responsiveness levels of the SEBT and YBT are similar is valid. Also, because of higher effect size value in the anterior direction in YBT compared with SEBT, this balance test could possibly be preferred in this direction for postural control evaluation.
Full-Text [PDF 442 kb]   (3744 Downloads)    
• Both tests showed changes during a six-week balance and strength exercise training. However, the changes were slightly but significantly higher in the SEBT compared to the YBT. Both tests can therefore be recommended for the evaluation of exercise programmes.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Kinesiology and Sport Injuries
Received: 2016/12/15 | Accepted: 2017/02/7

1. Gribble PA, Hertel J. Considerations for normalizing measures of the Star Excursion Balance Test. Measurement in physical education and exercise science. 2003;7(2):89-100. [DOI:10.1207/S15327841MPEE0702_3]
2. Gribble PA, Hertel J, Denegar CR, Buckley WE. The effects of fatigue and chronic ankle instability on dynamic postural control. Journal of Athletic Training. 2004;39(4):321. [PMID] [PMCID]
3. Marsh DW, Richard LA, WILLIAMS LA, Lynch KJ. The relationship between balance and pitching error in college baseball pitchers. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2004;18(3):441-6. [DOI:10.1519/R-13433.1]
4. Zech A, Hübscher M, Vogt L, Banzer W, Hänsel F, Pfeifer K. Balance training for neuromuscular control and performance enhancement: a systematic review. Journal of athletic training. 2010;45(4):392-403. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-45.4.392] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Hertel J, Miller SJ, Denegar CR. Intratester and intertester reliability during the Star Excursion Balance Tests. JSR. 2010;9(2).
6. Earl JE, Hertel J. Lower-extremity muscle activation during the Star Excursion Balance Tests. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2001;10(2):93-104. [DOI:10.1123/jsr.10.2.93]
7. Gray GW. Lower extremity functional profile: Wynn Marketing, Incorporated; 1995.
8. Miller SJ. A Biomechanical Analysis of the Anterior Balance Reach Test2001.
9. Olmsted LC, Carcia CR, Hertel J, Shultz SJ. Efficacy of the star excursion balance tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability. Journal of athletic training. 2002;37(4):501. [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Coughlan GF, Fullam K, Delahunt E, Gissane C, Caulfield BM. A comparison between performance on selected directions of the star excursion balance test and the Y balance test. Journal of athletic training. 2012;47(4):366. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-47.4.03] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Kinzey SJ, Armstrong CW. The reliability of the star-excursion test in assessing dynamic balance. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 1998;27(5):356-60. [DOI:10.2519/jospt.1998.27.5.356] [PMID]
12. Gorman PP, Butler RJ, Rauh MJ, Kiesel K, Plisky PJ. Differences in dynamic balance scores in one sport versus multiple sport high school athletes. International journal of sports physical therapy. 2012;7(2). [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Plisky PJ, Gorman PP, Butler RJ, Kiesel KB, Underwood FB, Elkins B. The reliability of an instrumented device for measuring components of the star excursion balance test. North American journal of sports physical therapy: NAJSPT. 2009;4(2):92. [PMID] [PMCID]
14. O'Neill M. The effects of fatigue and gender on the Star Excursion Balance Test in high school athletes: University of Delaware; 2011.
15. Baltaci G, Aktas G, Camci E, Oksuz S, Yildiz S, Kalaycioglu T. The effect of prophylactic knee bracing on performance: balance, proprioception, coordination, and muscular power. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. 2011;19(10):1722-8. [DOI:10.1007/s00167-011-1491-3] [PMID]
16. Borsa PA, Lephart SM, Fu FH. Muscular and functional performance characteristics of individuals wearing prophylactic knee braces. Journal of athletic training. 1993;28(4):336. [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Mohammadi V, Letafatkar A, Sadeghi H, Jafarnezhadgero A, Hilfiker R. The effect of motor control training on kinetics variables of patients with non-specific low back pain and movement control impairment: prospective observational study. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2016.
18. Fullam K, Caulfield B, Coughlan GF, Delahunt E. Kinematic analysis of selected reach directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test compared with the Y-Balance Test. J Sport Rehabil. 2014;23(1):27-35. [DOI:10.1123/JSR.2012-0114] [PMID]
19. Association GAotWM. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. The Journal of the American College of Dentists. 2014;81(3):14. [PMID]
20. Farahpour N, Jafarnezhad A, Damavandi M, Bakhtiari A, Allard P. Gait ground reaction force characteristics of low back pain patients with pronated foot and able-bodied individuals with and without foot pronation. Journal of biomechanics. 2016;49(9):1705-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.03.056] [PMID]
21. King MB, Judge JO, Whipple R, Wolfson L. Reliability and responsiveness of two physical performance measures examined in the context of a functional training intervention. Physical therapy. 2000;80(1):8-16. [PMID]
22. Hosseini SS, Asl AK, Rostamkhany H. The effect of strength and core stabilization training on physical fitness factors among elderly people. World Appl Sci J. 2012;16(4):479-84.
23. Nashner LM. Adaptation of human movement to altered environments. Trends in Neurosciences. 1982;5:358-61. [DOI:10.1016/0166-2236(82)90204-1]
24. Sarvestani H, Tabrizi H, Abbasi A, Rahmanpourmoghaddam J. The Effect of Eight Weeks Aquatic Balance Trainingand Core Stabilization Training on Dynamic Balance in Inactive Elder Males. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2012;11(3):279-86.
25. Gribble PA, Tucker WS, White PA. Time-of-day influences on static and dynamic postural control. Journal of athletic training. 2007;42(1):35. [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Cynthia A. The effects of strength and plyometric training on joint position, joint moments and joint stiffness at the knee: Dissertation. Faculty of Brigham young university (Canada); 2004.
27. Samson KM. The effects of a five-week core stabilization-training program on dynamic balance in tennis athletes: West Virginia University; 2005.
28. Prentice WE, Kaminski TW. Rehabilitation techniques for sports medicine and athletic training: McGraw-hill New York:; 2004.
29. Bahr R, Kannus P, Van Mechelen W. Epidemiology and prevention of sports injuries. Textbook of Sports Medicine: Basic Science and Clinical Aspects of Sports Injury and Physical Activity. 2008:299-314.
30. Robinson RH, Gribble PA. Support for a reduction in the number of trials needed for the Star Excursion Balance Test. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2008;89(2):364-70. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2007.08.139] [PMID]
31. Bland JM, Altman D. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. The lancet. 1986;327(8476):307-10. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90837-8]
32. McLeod T, Armstrong T, Miller M, Sauers JL. Balance improvements in female high school basketball players after a 6-week neuromuscular-training program. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18(4):465-81. [DOI:10.1123/jsr.18.4.465] [PMID]
33. Eisen TC, Danoff JV, Leone JE, Miller TA. The effects of multiaxial and uniaxial unstable surface balance training in college athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2010;24(7):1740-5. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e2745f] [PMID]
34. McKeon PO, Hertel J. Systematic review of postural control and lateral ankle instability, part II: is balance training clinically effective? Journal of athletic training. 2008;43(3):305-15. [DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-43.3.305] [PMID] [PMCID]
35. Mahieu NN, Witvrouw E, Van de Voorde D, Michilsens D. Improving strength and postural control in young skiers: whole-body vibration versus equivalent resistance training. Journal of athletic training. 2006;41(3):286. [PMID] [PMCID]

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb