Summer                   Back to the articles list | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


1- PhD Motor Behavior Department, Physical Education Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor Motor Behavior Department, Physical Education Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran , a_gh_m2003@yahoo.com
3- Assistant Professor Motor Behavior Department, Physical Education Faculty, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (125 Views)
Background. Adults benefit more from an external focus than internal focus when performing motor skills.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of internal and external focus of attention on dart throwing performance in children with and without developmental coordination disorder.
Methods. Twenty men, 20 normal boys and 20 boys with developmental coordination disorder were selected by Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers. The task was to throw the darts to the target which was performed in two experimental conditions including internal (related to the movements of the fingers and arm) and external (related to target and dart’s course) focus of attention.
Results. The results of ANOVA with repeated measures indicated that along with Constrained Action Hypothesis, adults performed better in the 
condition of external focus of attention. However, for normal children, the use of the internal focus of attention was more effective and in children with developmental coordination disorder, no significant difference between the two conditions was found.
Conclusion. According to results of this study, therapists and coaches should adjust their methods and instructions based on age, experience and developmental conditions of individuals.
Full-Text [PDF 523 kb]   (24 Downloads)    
 
 
APPLICABLE REMARKS

• For adults, instructions on the 
external focus of attention result in more effective performance.
• For children, instructions on the 
internal focus of attention result in more effective performance.
• Children with DCD need repeated instructions related to both types of internal and external focus of attention during the 
execution of the task.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Motor Control and its Related Branches
Received: 2017/07/19 | Accepted: 2017/09/21

References
1. Jarus T, Ghanouni P, Abel RL, Fomenoff SL, Lundberg J, Davidson S, et al. Effect of internal versus external focus of attention on implicit motor learning in children with developmental coordination disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2015;37:119-26. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.11.009]
2. Wulf G, Lewthwaite R, Cardozo P, Chiviacowsky S. Triple play: Additive contributions of enhanced expectancies, autonomy support, and external attentional focus to motor learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2017:1-9.
3. Pelleck V, Passmore SR. Location versus task relevance: the impact of differing internal focus of attention instructions on motor performance. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2017;176:23-31. [DOI:10.1016/j.actpsy.2017.03.007] [PMID]
4. Lewthwaite R, Wulf G. Optimizing motivation and attention for motor performance and learning. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2017.
5. Richer N, Saunders D, Polskaia N, Lajoie Y. The effects of attentional focus and cognitive tasks on postural sway may be the result of automaticity. Gait Posture. 2017;54:45-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.02.022]
6. Wulf G, Landers M, Lewthwaite R, Toöllner T. External focus instructions reduce postural instability in individuals with Parkinson disease. Phys Ther. 2016;89(2):162-8. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20080045] [PMID]
7. Ducharme SW, Wu WF, Lim K, Porter JM, Geraldo F. Standing long jump performance with an external focus of attention is improved as a result of a more effective projection angle. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2016;30(1):276-81 [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001050]
8. Schücker L, Fleddermann M, de Lussanet M, Elischer J, Böhmer C, Zentgraf K. Focusing attention on circular pedaling reduces movement economy in cycling. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2016;27:9-17. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.002]
9. Wulf G, Lauterbach B, Toole T. The learning advantages of an external focus of attention in golf. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1999;70(2):120-6. [DOI:10.1080/02701367.1999.10608029]
10. Wulf G, McConnel N, Gärtner M, Schwarz A. Enhancing the learning of sport skills through external-focus feedback. Journal of motor behavior. 2002;34(2):171-82. [DOI:10.1080/00222890209601939] [PMID]
11. Wulf G, McNevin N, Shea CH. The automaticity of complex motor skill learning as a function of attentional focus. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: Section A. 2001;54(4):1143-54. [DOI:10.1080/713756012]
12. Beilock SL, Carr TH, MacMahon C, Starkes JL. When paying attention becomes counterproductive: impact of divided versus skill-focused attention on novice and experienced performance of sensorimotor skills. J Exp Psychol Appl. 2002;8(1):6. [DOI:10.1037/1076-898X.8.1.6]
13. Perkins-Ceccato N, Passmore SR, Lee TD. Effects of focus of attention depend on golfers' skill. J Sports Sci. 2003;21(8):593-600. [DOI:10.1080/0264041031000101980]
14. Lidor R, Singer RN. Preperformance routines in self-paced tasks: Developmental and educational considerations. The psychology of team sports. 2003:69-98.
15. Saemi E, Porter J, Wulf G, Ghotbi–Varzaneh A, Bakhtiari S. Adopting an external focus of attention facilitates motor learning in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Kineziologija. 2013;45(2):179-85.
16. Abdollahipour R, Nieto MP, Psotta R, Wulf G. External focus of attention and autonomy support have additive benefits for motor performance in children. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2017. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.05.004]
17. Andy C, van Ginneken WF. Children's conscious control propensity moderates the role of attentional focus in motor skill acquisition. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2017;31:35-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.03.015]
18. Emanuel M, Jarus T, Bart O. Effect of focus of attention and age on motor acquisition, retention, and transfer: a randomized trial. Phys Ther. 2008;88(2):251. [DOI:10.2522/ptj.20060174] [PMID]
19. Salehi H, Zarezadeh M, Salek B. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (PMOQ-T). Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2012;18(3):211-9 [Article in Farsi].
20. McKay B, Wulf G. A distal external focus enhances novice dart throwing performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2012;10(2):149-56. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2012.682356]
21. Marchant DC, Clough PJ, Crawshaw M. The effects of attentional focusing strategies on novice dart throwing performance and their task experiences. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2007;5(3):291-303. [DOI:10.1080/1612197X.2007.9671837]
22. Watemberg N, Waiserberg N, Zuk L, Lerman‐Sagie T. Developmental coordination disorder in children with attention‐deficit–hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervention. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49(12):920-5. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00920.x] [PMID]
23. Wilson PH, Ruddock S, SMITS‐ENGELSMAN B, Polatajko H, Blank R. Understanding performance deficits in developmental coordination disorder: a meta‐analysis of recent research. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2013;55(3):217-28. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04436.x] [PMID]
24. Bo J, Lee C-M. Motor skill learning in children with developmental coordination disorder. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34(6):2047-55. [DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.03.012] [PMID]
25. Piek JP, Dyck MJ, Francis M, Conwell A. Working memory, processing speed, and set‐shifting in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention‐deficit–hyperactivity disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007;49(9):678-83. [DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00678.x] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb