year 6, Issue 4 (Winter 2018)                   2018, 6(4): 1-8 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Samiei A, Behpour N, Tadibi V, Fathi R. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training on Some Myocardial Fibrosis Indices in Cardiac Muscle of Diabetic Rats. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2018; 6 (4) :1-8
1- Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2- Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran ,
3- Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
Abstract:   (638 Views)
Background. Myocardial fibrosis is identified as a major side effect of Diabetes Mellitus on the heart. Some bio-markers including the ratio of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in collagen synthesis and collagen degradation are clinically useful in the diagnosis and identification of myocardial fibrosis. In addition, regular aerobic exercise training is one of the major and non-pharmacological solutions for preserving and promoting cardiovascular health.
Objectives. Thus, the current research aims at investigating the effect of aerobic training on levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) in diabetic rats.
Methods. 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (healthy control, diabetic control, and exercise diabetic). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin at 55 mg/kg per body weight. The exercise program comprised eight weeks of running on a bar for 60 minutes at a speed of 25 m/min. 
Biopsy was carried out 48 h after the last exercise session, and cardiac levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 values were measured by the ELISA sandwich method.
Results. The findings of the current research indicated that diabetes induction caused 
significant increase in cardiac levels of MMP-9 and significant reduction of TIMP-1 compared to the healthy group. In addition, it was revealed that the implementation of 8 weeks-aerobic exercise significantly reduced cardiac levels of MMP-9 and significantly increased TIMP-1 compared to the group without exercise.
Conclusions. The execution of aerobic training in diabetic rats inhibited progressive factors of myocardial fibrosis and thus fibrosis risk in diabetic heart is highly reduced.
Full-Text [PDF 734 kb]   (135 Downloads)    
• Regular aerobic exercises reduce cardiac fibrosis resulting from diabetes. Thus, diabetic patients can significantly reduce the risk of cardiac fibrosis and heart failure by moderate aerobic exercise training such as running.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2018/05/31 | Accepted: 2018/07/10 | ePublished ahead of print: 2019/01/11 | Published: 2019/01/11

1. Johansen T. Treating Diabetes Melitus Using Insulin Injections Administered With Varying Injection Intervals. Google Patents; 2018.
2. Huynh K, Bernardo BC, McMullen JR, Ritchie RH. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: mechanisms and new treatment strategies targeting antioxidant signaling pathways. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2014;142(3):375-415. [DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2014.01.003] [PMID]
3. De Boer MD, Selby A, Atherton P, Smith K, Seynnes OR, Maganaris CN, et al. The temporal responses of protein synthesis, gene expression and cell signalling in human quadriceps muscle and patellar tendon to disuse. The Journal of physiology. 2007;585(1):241-51. [DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2007.142828] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Li L, Zhao Q, Kong W. Extracellular matrix remodeling and cardiac fibrosis. Matrix Biology. 2018. [DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2018.01.013]
5. Kjaer M. Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to mechanical loading. Physiological reviews. 2004;84(2):649-98. [DOI:10.1152/physrev.00031.2003] [PMID]
6. Lee SW, Song KE, Shin DS, Ahn SM, Ha ES, Kim DJ, et al. Alterations in peripheral blood levels of TIMP-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in patients with type-2 diabetes. Diabetes research and clinical practice. 2005;69(2):175-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2004.12.010] [PMID]
7. Lobmann R, Schultz G, Lehnert H. Proteases and the diabetic foot syndrome: mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Diabetes care. 2005;28(2):461-71. [DOI:10.2337/diacare.28.2.461] [PMID]
8. Murphy G, Nagase H. Progress in matrix metalloproteinase research. Molecular aspects of medicine. 2008;29(5):290-308. [DOI:10.1016/j.mam.2008.05.002] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Symeonidis C, Papakonstantinou E, Galli A, Tsinopoulos I, Mataftsi A, Batzios S, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2,-9) and tissue inhibitor (TIMP-1,-2) activity in tear samples of pediatric type 1 diabetic patients. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2013;251(3):741-9. [DOI:10.1007/s00417-012-2221-3] [PMID]
10. Walraven M, Hinz B. Therapeutic approaches to control tissue repair and fibrosis: Extracellular matrix as a game changer. Matrix Biology. 2018. [DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2018.02.020] [PMID]
11. Adachi T, Weisbrod RM, Pimentel DR, Jia Y, Sharov VS, Schöneich C, et al. S-Glutathiolation by peroxynitrite activates SERCA during arterial relaxation by nitric oxide. Nature medicine. 2004;10(11):1200. [DOI:10.1038/nm1119] [PMID]
12. Murphy G, Docherty AJ. The matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. 1992;7:120-. [DOI:10.1165/ajrcmb/7.2.120] [PMID]
13. Uemura S, Matsushita H, Li W, Glassford AJ, Asagami T, Lee K-H, et al. Diabetes mellitus enhances vascular matrix metalloproteinase activity. Circulation Research. 2001;88(12):1291-8. [DOI:10.1161/hh1201.092042] [PMID]
14. Dastani M, Rashidlamir A, Alizadeh A. Effects of 8 Weeks of Aerobic Exercise on Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Tissue Inhibitor Levels in Type II Diabetic Women. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2014;16(6):12-5.
15. Ho FM, Liu SH, Lin WW, Liau CS. Opposite effects of high glucose on MMP‐2 and TIMP‐2 in human endothelial cells. Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2007;101(2):442-50. [DOI:10.1002/jcb.21192] [PMID]
16. O'keefe JH, Patil HR, Lavie CJ, Magalski A, Vogel RA, McCullough PA, editors. Potential adverse cardiovascular effects from excessive endurance exercise. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 2012: Elsevier.
17. Philpott J, Houghton K, Luke A. Physical activity recommendations for children with specific chronic health conditions: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, hemophilia, asthma and cystic fibrosis. Paediatrics & child health. 2010;15(4):213-8. [DOI:10.1093/pch/15.4.213]
18. Roberts TJ, Burns AT, MacIsaac RJ, MacIsaac AI, Prior DL, La Gerche A. Exercise capacity in diabetes mellitus is predicted by activity status and cardiac size rather than cardiac function: a case control study. Cardiovascular diabetology. 2018;17(1):44. [DOI:10.1186/s12933-018-0688-x] [PMID] [PMCID]
19. Ma X, Fu Y, Xiao H, Song Y, Chen R, Shen J, et al. Cardiac fibrosis alleviated by exercise training is AMPK-dependent. PloS one. 2015;10(6):e0129971. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129971] [PMID] [PMCID]
20. Kwak H-B, Kim J-h, Joshi K, Yeh A, Martinez DA, Lawler JM. Exercise training reduces fibrosis and matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in the aging rat heart. The FASEB Journal. 2011;25(3):1106-17. [DOI:10.1096/fj.10-172924] [PMID] [PMCID]
21. Russo AD, Pieroni M, Santangeli P, Bartoletti S, Casella M, Pelargonio G, et al. Concealed cardiomyopathies in competitive athletes with ventricular arrhythmias and an apparently normal heart: role of cardiac electroanatomical mapping and biopsy. Heart rhythm. 2011;8(12):1915-22. [DOI:10.1016/j.hrthm.2011.07.021] [PMID]
22. La Gerche A, Robberecht C, Kuiperi C, Nuyens D, Willems R, de Ravel T, et al. Lower than expected desmosomal gene mutation prevalence in endurance athletes with complex ventricular arrhythmias of right ventricular origin. Heart. 2010;96(16):1268-74. [DOI:10.1136/hrt.2009.189621] [PMID]
23. FARZANEGI P, AKBARI A, AZARBAYJANI MA. Effect of Portulaca oleracea Seeds on the Levels of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2, 9 and Tissue Inhibitor Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. 2013.
24. Soya H, Okamoto M, Matsui T, Lee M, Inoue K, Nishikawa S, et al. Brain activation via exercise: exercise conditions leading to neuronal activation and hippocampal neurogenesis. J Exerc Nutr Biochem. 2011;15:1-10. [DOI:10.5717/jenb.2011.15.1.1]
25. Ko SH, Hong OK, Kim JW, Ahn YB, Song KH, Cha BY, et al. High glucose increases extracellular matrix production in pancreatic stellate cells by activating the renin–angiotensin system. Journal of cellular biochemistry. 2006;98(2):343-55. [DOI:10.1002/jcb.20797] [PMID]
26. Kim SH, Hong SB, Suh YJ, Choi YJ, Nam M, Lee HW, et al. Association between nutrient intake and obesity in type 2 diabetic patients from the Korean National Diabetes Program: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Korean medical science. 2012;27(10):1188-95. [DOI:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.10.1188] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Dominguez-Rodriguez A, Abreu-Gonzalez P, Garcia-Gonzalez MJ, Kaski JC. High serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 level predict increased risk of in-hospital cardiac events in patients with type 2 diabetes and ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis. 2008;196(1):365-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.11.012] [PMID]
28. Westermann D, Rutschow S, Jäger S, Linderer A, Anker S, Riad A, et al. Contributions of inflammation and cardiac matrix metalloproteinase activity to cardiac failure in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes. 2007;56(3):641-6. [DOI:10.2337/db06-1163] [PMID]
29. Nakamura T, Matsuda T, Suzuki Y, Ueda Y, Koide H. Effects of low-density lipoprotein apheresis on plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 and serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels in diabetic hemodialysis patients with arteriosclerosis obliterans. Asaio Journal. 2003;49:430-4. [PMID]
30. Haffner SM, Greenberg AS, Weston WM, Chen H, Williams K, Freed MI. Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on nontraditional markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation. 2002;106(6):679-84. [DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.0000025403.20953.23] [PMID]
31. Mizushige K, Yao L, Noma T, Kiyomoto H, Yu Y, Hosomi N, et al. Alteration in left ventricular diastolic filling and accumulation of myocardial collagen at insulin-resistant prediabetic stage of a type II diabetic rat model. Circulation. 2000;101(8):899-907. [DOI:10.1161/01.CIR.101.8.899] [PMID]
32. Kadoglou N, Vrabas I, Sailer N, Kapelouzou A, Fotiadis G, Noussios G, et al. Exercise ameliorates serum MMP-9 and TIMP-2 levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes & metabolism. 2010;36(2):144-51. [DOI:10.1016/j.diabet.2009.11.004] [PMID]
33. Niessner A, Richter B, Penka M, Steiner S, Strasser B, Ziegler S, et al. Endurance training reduces circulating inflammatory markers in persons at risk of coronary events: impact on plaque stabilization? Atherosclerosis. 2006;186(1):160-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.06.047] [PMID]
34. Kadoglou NP, Daskalopoulou SS, Perrea D, Liapis CD. Matrix metalloproteinases and diabetic vascular complications. Angiology. 2005;56(2):173-89. [DOI:10.1177/000331970505600208] [PMID]
35. Tayebjee MH, Lip GY, Blann AD, MacFadyen RJ. Effects of age, gender, ethnicity, diurnal variation and exercise on circulating levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and-9, and their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and-2. Thrombosis research. 2005;115(3):205-10. [DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2004.08.023] [PMID]
36. Kruk M, Kalińczuk Ł, Pręgowski J, Przyłuski J, Janas J, Chmielak Z, et al. Serum tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 and higher risk features of coronary plaque: a volumetric multivessel intravascular ultrasound study. Atherosclerosis. 2007;194(2):e57-e63. [DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.08.045] [PMID]
37. Cheng M, Hashmi S, Mao X, Zeng QT. Relationships of adiponectin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio with coronary plaque morphology in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Canadian Journal of Cardiology. 2008;24(5):385-90. [DOI:10.1016/S0828-282X(08)70602-0]
38. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease, professional edition e-book: elsevier health sciences; 2014.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb