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1- School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III Da Varano, I-62032 Camerino (MC), Italy
2- Athletic Thai Gym, Via Sebastiano Vanzi, 16 47900 Rimini (RN)
3- School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III Da Varano, I-62032 Camerino (MC), Italy , francesco.palermo@unicam.it
Abstract:   (200 Views)
Background. Soccer, combat sports and motorcycling have all been classified as mixed in terms of their metabolism predominance thus showing a common multifaceted nature of physical requirements, which include aerobic capacity, strength, endurance, power and agility.
Objectives. The aim of the current study was to compare allelic and genotype frequencies of four well-known polymorphisms among athletes from different mixed
sport disciplines in order to investigate genetic markers suitable for distinguishing the predominant components of these sports.
Methods. Genotyping for the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X, muscle‐specific creatine kinase (CK-MM) A/G and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) G/C polymorphisms among 113 professional athletes from motorcycling, soccer and combat sports was performed by PCR-RFLP method.
Results. We found that the G allele of the PPARα polymorphism was significantly (p<0.05) more frequent in soccer players than in combat
sport
athletes or motorcycle riders. In addition, we observed that the genotype frequency of AA of CK-MM (rs8111989) polymorphism in soccer players was significantly (p<0.05) higher than combat athletes. On the contrary, both ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms do not enable to distinguish between these disciplines.
Conclusions. Our findings indicate that the PPARα polymorphism may be suitable as potential distinguish genetic marker among mixed sport disciplines.
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APPLICABLE REMARKS
• This study provides new insights into the possible relationship between genetic polymorphisms and “mixed energy system” disciplines, including motorcycling.
• The most obvious limitations of this study are the sample size and the low number of endurance-associated polymorphisms used for computing TGS. However, we believe that our findings can be considered reliable given the strengths of this study, which include the homogeneity of the sample in terms of athletic status (i.e elite athletes), geographical and ethnical origin (all European Caucasians), and the assumption of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for each 
group.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2018/07/9 | Accepted: 2018/09/1

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