year 7, Issue 1 (Spring 2019)                   Ann Appl Sport Sci 2019, 7(1): 1-9 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Cocci P, Pistolesi L, Guercioni M, Belli L, Carli D, Palermo F A. Genetic Variants and Mixed Sport Disciplines: A Comparison among Soccer, Combat and Motorcycle Athletes. Ann Appl Sport Sci. 2019; 7 (1) :1-9
1- School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III Da Varano, I-62032 Camerino (MC), Italy
2- Athletic Thai Gym, Via Sebastiano Vanzi, 16 47900 Rimini (RN), Italy
3- School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III Da Varano, I-62032 Camerino (MC), Italy ,
Abstract:   (2621 Views)
Background. Soccer, combat sports and motorcycling have all been classified as mixed in terms of their metabolism predominance thus showing a common multifaceted nature of physical requirements, which include aerobic capacity, strength, endurance, power and agility.
Objectives. The aim of the current study was to compare allelic and genotype frequencies of four well-known polymorphisms among athletes from different mixed
sport disciplines in order to investigate genetic markers suitable for distinguishing the predominant components of these sports.
Methods. Genotyping for the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X, muscle‐specific creatine kinase (CK-MM) A/G and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) G/C polymorphisms among 113 professional athletes from motorcycling, soccer and combat sports was performed by PCR-RFLP method.
Results. We found that the G allele of the PPARα polymorphism was significantly (p<0.05) more frequent in soccer players than in combat
athletes or motorcycle riders. In addition, we observed that the genotype frequency of AA of CK-MM (rs8111989) polymorphism in soccer players was significantly (p<0.05) higher than combat athletes. On the contrary, both ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms do not enable to distinguish between these disciplines.
Conclusions. Our findings indicate that the PPARα polymorphism may be suitable as potential distinguish genetic marker among mixed
sport disciplines.
Full-Text [PDF 908 kb]   (767 Downloads)    
  • This study provides new insights into the possible relationship between genetic polymorphisms and “mixed energy system” disciplines, including motorcycling.
  • The most obvious limitations of this study are the sample size and the low number of endurance-associated polymorphisms used for computing TGS. However, we believe that our findings can be considered reliable given the strengths of this study, which include the homogeneity of the sample in terms of athletic status (i.e elite athletes), geographical and ethnical origin (all European Caucasians), and the assumption of Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for each group.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Physiology and its related branches
Received: 2018/07/9 | Accepted: 2018/09/1 | Published: 2019/01/17

1. Milioni F, Zagatto AM, Barbieri RA, Andrade VL, Dos Santos JW, Gobatto CA, da Silva AS, Santiago PR, Papoti M. Energy Systems Contribution in the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test. International journal of sports medicine 2017; 38: 226-32. [DOI:10.1055/s-0042-117722] [PMID]
2. Spencer MR, Gastin PB. Energy system contribution during 200- to 1500-m running in highly trained athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2001; 33(1):157–62. [DOI:10.1097/00005768-200101000-00024] [PMID]
3. Dellal A, Varliette C, Owen A, Chirico E, Pialoux V. Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: Effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2012; 26, 2712-720. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824294c4] [PMID]
4. Gobbi AW, Francisco RA, Tuy B, Kvitne RS. Physiological characteristics of top level off-road motorcyclists. British journal of sports medicine 2005; 39: 927-31; discussion 31. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2005.018291] [PMID] [PMCID]
5. Di Giminiani R, Visca C. Explosive strength and endurance adaptations in young elite soccer players during two soccer seasons. PLoS ONE 2017; 12(2), e0171734. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0171734] [PMID] [PMCID]
6. Ho LA. Explosive Power and Anaerobic Endurance for Wrestlers. In 31 International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports 2013.
7. Eynon N, Ruiz JR, Oliveira J, Duarte JA, Birk R, Lucia A. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research. The Journal of Physiology 2011; 589(Pt 13):3063-3070. [DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2011.207035] [PMID] [PMCID]
8. Maffulli N, Margiotti K, Longo UG, Loppini M, Fazio VM, Denaro V. The genetics of sports injuries and athletic perfance. Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal 2013; 3: 173-89. [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Ahmetov I, Egorova ES, Mustafina LJ. The PPARA gene polymorphism in team sports athletes. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine 2013; vol. 1, pp. 19–24.
10. Batavani MR, Marandi SM, Ghaedi K, Esfarjani F. Comparison of muscle-specific creatine kinase (CK-MM) gene polymorphism (rs8111989) among professional, amateur athletes and non-athlete karatekas. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine 2017; 8(2):e43210. [DOI:10.5812/asjsm.43210]
11. Ehlert T, Simon P, Moser DA. Epigenetics in sports. Sports medicine 2013; 43: 93-110. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-012-0012-y] [PMID]
12. Lucia A, Moran M, Zihong H, Ruiz JR. Elite athletes: are the genes the champions? International journal of sports physiology and performance 2010; 5: 98-102. [DOI:10.1123/ijspp.5.1.93] [PMID]
13. Ulucan K, Biyik B, Kapici S, Sercan C, Yilmaz O, Catal T, Alpha-Actinin-3 R577x Polymorphism Profile of Turkish Professional Hip-Hop and Latin Dancers. Annals of Applied Sport Science 2016; 4(4): 1-6. [DOI:10.18869/acadpub.aassjournal.4.4.1]
14. Arslan KA, Akpunar F, Sercan C, Kapıcı S, Ulucan K. Slc2a4 Polymorphisms Can Be A New Molecular Biomarker for Sports Genomics. Annals of Applied Sport Science 2017; 5(3): 1-3. [DOI:10.29252/acadpub.aassjournal.5.3.1]
15. Eynon N, Meckel Y, Sagiv M, Yamin C, Amir R, Sagiv M, Goldhammer E, Duarte JA, Oliveira J. Do PPARGC1A and PPARalpha polymorphisms influence sprint or endurance phenotypes? Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 2010; 20: e145-50. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00930.x] [PMID]
16. Fedotovskaia ON, Popov DV, Vinogradova OL, Akhmetov, II. [Association of the muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKMM) gene polymorphism with physical performance of athletes]. Fiziologiia cheloveka 2012; 38: 105-9. [DOI:10.1134/S0362119712010082]
17. Pimenta EM, Coelho DB, Veneroso CE, Barros Coelho EJ, Cruz IR, Morandi RF, De APG, Carvalho MR, Garcia ES, De Paz Fernandez JA. Effect of ACTN3 gene on strength and endurance in soccer players. Journal of strength and conditioning research 2013; 27: 3286-92. [DOI:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182915e66] [PMID]
18. Sessa F, Chetta M, Petito A, Franzetti M, Bafunno V, Pisanelli D, Sarno M, Iuso S, Margaglione M. Gene polymorphisms and sport attitude in Italian athletes. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers 2011; 15: 285-90. [DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2010.0179] [PMID]
19. Akhmetov, II, Popov DV, Mozhaiskaia IA, Missina SS, Astratenkova IV, Vinogradova OL, Rogozkin VA. [Association of regulatory genes polymorphisms with aerobic and anaerobic performance of athletes]. Rossiiskii fiziologicheskii zhurnal imeni IM Sechenova 2007; 93: 837-43. [PMID]
20. Ginevičienė V, Pranckevičienė E, Milašius K, Kučinskas V. Relating fitness phenotypes to genotypes in Lithuanian elite athletes. Acta Med Litu 2010; 17(1-2):1-10. [DOI:10.2478/v10140-010-0001-0]
21. Varley I, Hughes DC, Greeves JP, Stellingwerff T, Ranson C, Fraser WD, Sale C. The association of novel polymorphisms with stress fracture injury in Elite Athletes: Further insights from the SFEA cohort. Journal of science and medicine in sport 2017.
22. Saab YB, Kabbara W, Chbib C, Gard PR. Buccal cell DNA extraction: yield, purity, and cost: a comparison of two methods. Genetic testing 2007; 11: 413-6. [DOI:10.1089/gte.2007.0044] [PMID]
23. Abbas S, Raza ST, Chandra A, Rizvi S, Ahmed F, Eba A, Mahdi F. Association of ACE, FABP2 and GST genes polymorphism with essential hypertension risk among a North Indian population. Annals of human biology 2015; 42: 461-9. [DOI:10.3109/03014460.2014.968206] [PMID]
24. Schadock I, Schneider A, Silva ED, Buchweitz MR, Correa MN, Pesquero JB, Paredes-Gamero EJ, Araujo RC, Barros CC. Simple Method to Genotype the ACTN3 r577x Polymorphism. Genetic testing and molecular biomarkers 2015; 19: 253-7. [DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2014.0299] [PMID]
25. Proia P, Bianco A, Schiera G, Saladino P, Contro V, Caramazza G, Traina M, Grimaldi KA, Palma A, Paoli A. PPARalpha gene variants as predicted performance-enhancing polymorphisms in professional Italian soccer players. Open access journal of sports medicine 2014; 5: 273-8. [PMID] [PMCID]
26. Ruiz JR, Gomez-Gallego F, Santiago C, Gonzalez-Freire M, Verde Z, Foster C, Lucia A. Is there an optimum endurance polygenic profile? The Journal of physiology 2009; 587: 1527-34. [DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2008.166645] [PMID] [PMCID]
27. Lopez-Leon S, Tuvblad C, Forero DA. Sports genetics: the PPARA gene and athletes' high ability in endurance sports. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biology of Sport 2016; 33(1): 3-6. [PMID]
28. Maciejewska A, Sawczuk M, Cieszczyk P. Variation in the PPARalpha gene in Polish rowers. Journal of science and medicine in sport 2011; 14: 58-64. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.05.006] [PMID]
29. Schmitt B, Fluck M, Decombaz J, Kreis R, Boesch C, Wittwer M, Graber F, Vogt M, Howald H, Hoppeler H. Transcriptional adaptations of lipid metabolism in tibialis anterior muscle of endurance-trained athletes. Physiological genomics 2003; 15: 148-57. [DOI:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00089.2003] [PMID]
30. Russell AP, Feilchenfeldt J, Schreiber S, Praz M, Crettenand A, Gobelet C, Meier CA, Bell DR, Kralli A, Giacobino JP, Deriaz O. Endurance training in humans leads to fiber type-specific increases in levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha in skeletal muscle. Diabetes 2003; 52: 2874-81. [DOI:10.2337/diabetes.52.12.2874] [PMID]
31. Tural E, Kara N, Agaoglu SA, Elbistan M, Tasmektepligil MY, Imamoglu O. PPAR-alpha and PPARGC1A gene variants have strong effects on aerobic performance of Turkish elite endurance athletes. Molecular biology reports 2014; 41: 5799-804. [DOI:10.1007/s11033-014-3453-6] [PMID]
32. Fedotovskaya O, Eider J, Cięszczyk P, Ahmetov I, Moska W, Sawczyn S, Ficek K, Leońska-Duniec A, Maciejewska-Karłowska A, Sawczuk M, Czubek Z, Żychowska M, Jascaniene N. Association of muscle-specific creatine kinase (CKM) gene polymorphism with combat athlete status in Polish and Russian cohorts. Archives of Budo 2013; ICID: 889021.
33. Massidda M, Corrias L, Scorcu M, Vona G, Calò MC. ACTN-3 and ACE genotypes in elite male Italian athletes. Anthropological review 2012; Vol. 75 (1), 51–59. [DOI:10.2478/v10044-012-0004-4]
34. Scott RA, Irving R, Irwin L, Morrison E, Charlton V, Austin K, Tladi D, Deason M, Headley SA, Kolkhorst FW, Yang N, North K, Pitsiladis YP. ACTN3 and ACE genotypes in elite Jamaican and US sprinters. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 2010; 42: 107-12. [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ae2bc0] [PMID]
35. Kikuchi N, Ueda D, Min SK, Nakazato K, Igawa I. The ACTN3 XX Genotype's Underrepresentation in Japanese Elite Wrestlers. International journal of sports physiology and performance 2013; 8, 57-61. [DOI:10.1123/ijspp.8.1.57] [PMID]
36. Orysiak J, Busko K, Michalski R, Mazur-Rozycka J, Gajewski J, Malczewska-Lenczowska J, Sitkowski D, Pokrywka A. Relationship between ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and maximal power output in elite Polish athletes. Medicina 2014; 50: 303-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.medici.2014.10.002] [PMID]
37. Eynon N, Ruiz JR, Femia P, Pushkarev VP, Cieszczyk P, Maciejewska-Karlowska A, Sawczuk M, Dyatlov DA, Lekontsev EV, Kulikov LM, Birk R, Bishop DJ, Lucia A. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism across three groups of elite male European athletes. PloS one 2012; 7: e43132. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043132] [PMID] [PMCID]
38. Castagna C, Abt G, D'Ottavio S. Physiological aspects of soccer refereeing performance and training. Sports medicine 2007; 37: 625-46. [DOI:10.2165/00007256-200737070-00006] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb