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1- Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran
2- Department of Physical Education, Aliabad Katoul Branch, Islamic Azad University, Aliabad Katoul, Iran. , akramesf59@gmail.com
3- Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Azadshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran
Abstract:   (40 Views)
Background. Horse riding is one of the oldest sports competition in Iran held annually in provinces such as Golestan. However, the number of spectators present in these competitions is not comparable to sports such as football.
Objectives. It’s necessary to study the behavioral tendencies of the Spectators of horse racing and its influencing factors.
Methods. It was a descriptive survey study and the statistical population included all spectators of horse racing of the Eighth Week Spring competition in Gonbad Kavoos, 2018 which included 3480 individuals. According to Cochran formula, 348 people were selected by available sampling method. Cheng et al. (2012) questionnaire was used for data collection of planned behavior model and Lee and Shiu (2015) questionnaire for tendency of spectator’s involvement at sporting event and spectators’ re-attendance questionnaire of Rio and et al (2011) were used. The internal consistencies of the questionnaires were obtained by Cronbach's which were 0.89, 0.85 and 0.78, respectively. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research model.
Results. The findings showed that the effect of attitude (β = 0.23, t = 3.74), subjective norms (β = 0.15, t = 2.78) and perceived behavior control (β = 0.35, t = -5.93) were positive and significant on the tendency of involvement of spectator in Horse Racing. Moreover, the effect of attitude (β = 0.34, t = 6.55) and perceived behavior control (β = 0.04, t = 0.83) were positive and significant on the spectators’ re-attendance to Horse Racing. Finally, the findings showed that the effect of subjective norms was not significant on the spectators’ re-attendance (β = 0.16, t = 2.37).
Conclusion. It can be concluded that the planned behavior model can be used to explain the behavioral tendencies of horse racing spectators during the Gonbad kavoos spring competition. Finally, increasing spectators' knowledge of horse racing, offering attractive and entertaining programs for spectators during competitions and developing various promotional strategies to increase involvement and a desire for Horse Racing Spectators re-attendance are suggested for these competitions.
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APPLICABLE REMARKS

- Implementing advertising strategies that increase Spectators' involvement in the event.
- Allocating family-friendly venues that increase the likelihood of Spectators re-attendance to the event.
- Introducing fun programs for Spectators before the race begins.
- Increasing Spectators' knowledge of the horse industry (all types of competitions, breeds, job opportunities, etc.) through booklets or workshops for Spectators and the general public.
- Providing comprehensive information on all types of racing in the field during Horse Racing and creating a comprehensive website on Horse Racing in Gonbad Kavoos (information on spring and fall competitions, tournament history, tournament results, introduction of Horse Clubs, Introducing Famous Athletes in the Field)
- Considering a post-race time for Spectators to keep in touch with horse owners as well as the riders.
- Organizing social events before and during the tournament, such as honoring the oldest and youngest spectator of the week.
- Performing cultural and traditional events during these competitions such as Turkmen and Persian music to create a positive image of the event in the minds of the Spectators.


Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Management and its related branches
Received: 2019/07/21 | Accepted: 2019/09/22

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