In Press Articles                   Back to the articles list | Back to browse issues page

XML Print

1- Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2- Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran ,
3- Department of Biomedical Engineering, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Abstract:   (288 Views)
Background. Attention is considered as a resource for storing and processing memory activities. Without attention, no perceptual processing takes place in the brain as the information (whether visual or auditory) cannot enter the brain.
Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the attention of individuals to sports and non-sports advertising using brain activities.
Methods. It was a quasi-experimental study investigating two advertisements (sports and non-sports) of Apple Company on 30 volunteers (15 men and 15 women). The Neuroguide software was used to convert electroencephalographic data to quantitative data. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for testing hypotheses in SPSS software.
Results. The results showed that there was a significant difference between watching sports and non-sports advertising on peoplechr('39')s attention; in other words, sports advertising was able to reduce alpha in the frontal and pre-frontal brain while this decrease did not occur when viewing non-sports advertising. There was no significant difference in attention between men and women.
Conclusion. Sport has the potential to attract peoplechr('39')s attention, which is one of the main goals of companies and industry owners and can attract more attention in people to the advertised product, resulting in better brand retention and recall, and thus increasing promotional product or brand purchases.
Full-Text [PDF 354 kb]   (54 Downloads)    
  • Considering the expansion and specialization of studies in the field of sports marketing, a study can also examine and compare the impact of sport on the attention of different groups of society such as athletes, non-athletes, fans, non-fans.
  • The other research can investigate the impact of age on attention to sports and non-sports advertising.
  • Another study can investigate and compare the amount of attention paid to national sports advertising with international samples.
  • Attention taking to sport ads should be compared using other neuromarketing tools such as ocular trackers, FMRIs, and so on.
  • The impact of sports scenes and advertising on other factors influencing advertising success, such as being pleasant, retention in mind, re-branding, etc. should be carefully examined considering different bands' changes and comparing them to non-sports advertising.

Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Sport Management and its related branches
Received: 2019/10/28 | Accepted: 2019/12/21

1. Javadipour S, Ashayeri H, Kamali M, Akbar Fahimi M, Aliabadi F. Study of Visual Selective Attention Effect on Quality of Handwriting in 18-22 Years Old Students of Rehabilitation Sciences School of Iran Medical Sciences University. Middle Eastern Journal of Disability Studies. 2012;1(2):52-7.
2. Khodaparast S, Razavi SMH, Rezaee Soufi M, Safania AM. Designing and Preparing the Development Model of Marketing in Volleyball Super League of Iran. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2019;7(4):1-8. [DOI:10.29252/aassjournal.600]
3. Sharifi M, Pool JK, Jalilvand MR, Tabaeeian RA, Jooybari MG. Forecasting of advertising effectiveness for renewable energy technologies: A neural network analysis. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. 2019;143:154-61. [DOI:10.1016/j.techfore.2019.04.009]
4. Riebe E, Wright M, Stern P, Sharp B. How to grow a brand: Retain or acquire customers? Journal of Business Research. 2014;67(5):990-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.08.005]
5. Simmonds L, Bellman S, Kennedy R, Nenycz-Thiel M, Bogomolova S. Moderating effects of prior brand usage on visual attention to video advertising and recall: An eye-tracking investigation. Journal of Business Research. 2019. [DOI:10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.02.062]
6. Barry TE, Howard DJ. A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising. International Journal of Advertising. 1990;9(2):121-35. [DOI:10.1080/02650487.1990.11107138]
7. Hassan S, Nadzim SZA, Shiratuddin N. Strategic use of social media for small business based on the AIDA model. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2015;172:262-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.363]
8. Chan L-Y, Su M-S, Huang C-M. Research on TV advertising effectiveness of the Taiwan Super Basketball League. International Journal of Organizational Innovation (Online). 2010;3(2):199.
9. Wijaya BS. The development of hierarchy of effects model in advertising. International Research Journal of Business Studies. 2015;5(1).
10. Bellman S, Nenycz-Thiel M, Kennedy R, Larguinat L, McColl B, Varan D. What Makes a Television Commercial Sell? Using Biometrics to Identify Successful Ads: Demonstrating Neuromeasures' Potential On 100 Mars Brand Ads with Single-Source Data. Journal of Advertising Research. 2017;57(1):53-66. [DOI:10.2501/JAR-2016-051]
11. Ehrenberg A, Barnard N, Kennedy R, Bloom H. Brand advertising as creative publicity. Journal of Advertising Research. 2002;42(4):7-18. [DOI:10.2501/JAR-42-4-7-18]
12. Percy L, Rossiter JR. A model of brand awareness and brand attitude advertising strategies. Psychology & Marketing. 1992; 9(4): 263-274. [DOI:10.1002/mar.4220090402]
13. Pieters R, Wedel M, Zhang J. Optimal feature advertising design under competitive clutter. Management Science. 2007;53(11):1815-28. [DOI:10.1287/mnsc.1070.0732]
14. Vaughan K, Beal V, Romaniuk J. Can Brand Users Really Remember Advertising More Than Nonusers?: Testing an Empirical Generalization Across Six Advertising Awareness Measures. Journal of Advertising Research. 2016;56(3):311-20. [DOI:10.2501/JAR-2016-037]
15. Harrison F. Digging deeper down into the empirical generalization of brand recall: Adding owned and earned media to paid-media touchpoints. Journal of Advertising Research. 2013;53(2):181-5. [DOI:10.2501/JAR-53-2-181-185]
16. Rice B, Bennett R. The relationship between brand usage and advertising tracking measurements: International findings. Journal of Advertising Research. 1998;38(3):58-66.
17. Global advertising spending from 2014 to 2020 (in billion U.S. dollars). Available from: [cited july 2018].
18. Calvert GA, Brammer MJ. Predicting consumer behavior: using novel mind-reading approaches. IEEE pulse. 2012;3(3):38-41. [DOI:10.1109/MPUL.2012.2189167] [PMID]
19. Seifpanahi Shabani J, Gharehkhani H, Naderi F. The Role of Sport Marketing Mix in Generating Revenue for Iranian Football Clubs. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2018;6(1):95-102. [DOI:10.29252/aassjournal.6.1.95]
20. Sebastian V. Neuromarketing and evaluation of cognitive and emotional responses of consumers to marketing stimuli. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;127:753-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.349]
21. Ohme R, Matukin M. A small frog that makes a big difference: Brain wave testing of TV advertisements. IEEE pulse 2012; 3(3): 28-33. [DOI:10.1109/MPUL.2012.2189169] [PMID]
22. Ariely D, Berns GS. Neuromarketing: the hope and hype of neuroimaging in business. Nature reviews neuroscience. 2010;11(4):284. [DOI:10.1038/nrn2795] [PMID] [PMCID]
23. Fischer NL, Peres R, Fiorani M. Frontal Alpha Asymmetry and Theta Oscillations Associated With Information Sharing Intention. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience. 2018;12. [DOI:10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00166] [PMID] [PMCID]
24. Harmon‐Jones E, Gable PA. On the role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in approach and withdrawal motivation: An updated review of the evidence. Psychophysiology. 2018;55(1): e12879. [DOI:10.1111/psyp.12879] [PMID]
25. Harmon-Jones E, Gable PA, Peterson CK. The role of asymmetric frontal cortical activity in emotion-related phenomena: A review and update. Biological psychology. 2010;84(3):451-62. [DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2009.08.010] [PMID]
26. Jesulola E, Sharpley CF, Bitsika V, Agnew LL, Wilson P. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues. Behavioural Brain Research. 2015;292:56-67. [DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.05.058] [PMID]
27. Moon J, Kwon Y, Park J, Yoon WC. Detecting user attention to video segments using interval EEG features. Expert Systems with Applications. 2019;115:578-92. [DOI:10.1016/j.eswa.2018.08.016]
28. Berger AM, Davelaar EJ. Frontal alpha oscillations and attentional control: a virtual reality neurofeedback study. Neuroscience. 2018;378:189-97. [DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2017.06.007] [PMID]
29. Capotosto P, Babiloni C, Romani GL, Corbetta M. Frontoparietal cortex controls spatial attention through modulation of anticipatory alpha rhythms. Journal of Neuroscience. 2009;29(18):5863-72. [DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0539-09.2009] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Van Diepen R, Foxe JJ, Mazaheri A. The functional role of alpha-band activity in attentional processing: The current zeitgeist and future outlook. Current opinion in psychology. 2019. [DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2019.03.015] [PMID]
31. Yoto A, Katsuura T, Iwanaga K, Shimomura Y. Effects of object color stimuli on human brain activities in perception and attention referred to EEG alpha band response. Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 2007;26(3):373-9. [DOI:10.2114/jpa2.26.373] [PMID]
32. Vecchiato G, Kong W, Giulio Maglione A, Wei D. Understanding the impact of TV commercials. IEEE pulse. 2012;3(3):42. [DOI:10.1109/MPUL.2012.2189171] [PMID]
33. Baraybar-Fernánde A, Baños-González M, Barquero-Pérez Ó, Goya-Esteban R, de-la-Morena-Gómez A. Evaluation of Emotional Responses to Television Advertising through Neuromarketing. Comunicar: Media Education Research Journal. 2017;25(52):19-28. [DOI:10.3916/C52-2017-02]
34. Vecchiato G, Astolfi L, Fallani FDV, Cincotti F, Mattia D, Salinari S, et al. Changes in brain activity during the observation of TV commercials by using EEG, GSR and HR measurements. Brain topography. 2010;23(2):165-79. [DOI:10.1007/s10548-009-0127-0] [PMID]
35. Simons RF, Detenber BH, Cuthbert BN, Schwartz DD, Reiss JE. Attention to television: Alpha power and its relationship to image motion and emotional content. Media psychology. 2003;5(3):283-301. [DOI:10.1207/S1532785XMEP0503_03]
36. Kordlu H, Elahi A, Khodayari A. The cause and effect relation between beliefs, attitude toward advertising through sport and attitude toward common advertising: the results of structural equations model. Sport Management Review. 2015;30:203-24
37. 37 Saberi A, Kalateh Seifari M, Dosti M, Razavi SMH, Farzan F. Designing a Sport Development Model in Iran's Free Trade Industrial Zones. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2018;6(4): 49-58. [DOI:10.29252/aassjournal.6.4.49]
38. James JD. Attitude toward advertising through sport: A theoretical framework. Sport Management Review. 2011;14(1):33-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.smr.2009.12.002]
39. Pyun DY, James JD. Enhancing advertising communications: Developing a model of beliefs about advertising through sport. International Journal of Sport Communication. 2009;2(1):1-20. [DOI:10.1123/ijsc.2.1.1]
40. Bjelica D, Popović S, Jakšić D, Hadžić R, Akpinar S, editors. How Does Advertising through Sport Work? Evidence from Turkey. 7TH INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE ON KINESIOLOGY; 2014.
41. Muratovic A, Bjelica D, Popovic S. Examining beliefs and attitudes toward advertising through sport among montenegrin consumers. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physical Education and Sport. 2014:95-104.
42. Masanovic B. Attitudes of consumers from Autonomous Province of Vojvodina toward advertising through sport in relation with the frequency of watching sports events. Sport Mont. 2018;16(3):91-6. [DOI:10.26773/smj.181016]
43. Keshkar S, Lawrence I, Dodds M, Morris E, Mahoney T, Heisey K, et al. The Role of Culture in Sports Sponsorship: an Update. Ann Appl Sport Sci. 2019;7(1):57-81. [DOI:10.29252/aassjournal.7.1.57]
44. Tapia Frade A, Martín Guerra E, Puente JE. Neurociencia y publicidad. Atención, emoción y su relación con los premios obtenidos en el Festival Internacional de Publicidad de Cannes. Anàlisi: quaderns de comunicació i cultura. 2016:0075-95.
45. Behnam M, Gudarzi M, Hamidi M. The influence of advertising appeal on future intention and consumer's attitude toward advertisement in sport service. Sport Management Review. 2015(30):35-54.
46. Bennett G, Ferreira M, Tsuji Y, Siders R, Cianfrone B. Analysing the effects of advertising type and antecedents on attitude towards advertising in sport. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship. 2006;8(1):56-75. [DOI:10.1108/IJSMS-08-01-2006-B008]
47. Popović S, Jakšić D, Matić R, Bjelica D, Maksimović N. Examining Beliefs and Attitudes toward Advertising through Sport among Serbian Consumers. Studia sportiva. 2015;9(1):225-31. [DOI:10.5817/StS2015-1-28]
48. Zorić G, Mašanović B, Gardašević J. Attitudes of Montenegrin consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. Journal of Anthropology of Sport and Physical Education. 2018;2(1):21-5. [DOI:10.26773/jaspe.180104]
49. Sajjadi SN, Omidi A, Zare g. The relation between the use of sports in advertising and consumer behavior of sports spectator. Harekat. 2007;34:83-93.
50. Cartocci G, Cherubino P, Rossi D, Modica E, Maglione AG, Di Flumeri G, et al. Gender and age related effects while watching TV advertisements: an EEG study. Computational intelligence and neuroscience. 2016;201-206. [DOI:10.1155/2016/3795325] [PMID] [PMCID]
51. Yılmaz B, Korkmaz S, Arslan DB, Güngör E, Asyalı MH. Like/dislike analysis using EEG: determination of most discriminative channels and frequencies. Computer methods and programs in biomedicine. 2014;113(2):705-13. [DOI:10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.11.010] [PMID]
52. Wonderlich-Tierney AL, Wenzel KR, Vander Wal JS, Wang-Hall J. Food-related advertisements and food intake among adult men and women. Appetite. 2013;71:57-62. [DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2013.07.009] [PMID]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2017 All Rights Reserved | Annals of Applied Sport Science

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb