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Abstract (325 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (53 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • Implementing advertising strategies that increase Spectators' involvement in the event.
  • Allocating family-friendly venues that increase the likelihood of Spectators re-attendance to the event.
  • Introducing fun programs for Spectators before the race begins.
  • Increasing Spectators' knowledge of the horse industry (all types of competitions, breeds, job opportunities, etc.) through booklets or workshops for Spectators and the general public.
  • Providing comprehensive information on all types of racing in the field during Horse Racing and creating a comprehensive website on Horse Racing in Gonbad Kavoos (information on spring and fall competitions, tournament history, tournament results, the introduction of Horse Clubs, Introducing Famous Athletes in the Field)
  • Considering a post-race time for Spectators to keep in touch with horse owners as well as the riders.
  • Organizing social events before and during the tournament, such as honoring the oldest and youngest spectator of the week.
  • Performing cultural and traditional events during these competitions such as Turkmen and Persian music to create a positive image of the event in the minds of the Spectators.

Abstract (55 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (16 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • It is suggested for Iran’s Ministry of Sports and Youth to coordinate with government and related organizations that are responsible for recruitment to apply knowledge-based, commitment, creative, and skilled human resources. The management team of this center, should design ways for training current employees to achieve national and international success.
  • The managers of the mentioned organization should try their best to create a suitable organization culture to achieve its long-term goals, mission, and scope.

Abstract (289 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (46 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • According to the results, talent management has a direct and indirect effect on job retention of swimming coaches. Therefore, it is recommended that Downloaded from at 6:01 +0330 on Saturday, March 14th, 2020 8 Designing Job Retention Model among Swimming Coaches managers and officials of the Swimming Federation increase job retention by providing appropriate areas of dynamics, growth, recognition, and promotion among coaches.
  • The results showed that the quality of working life has a positive effect on job retention of swimming coaches. Therefore, managers can enhance the quality of working experience and subsequently the job retention of coaches by closing appropriate contracts, involving coaches in decision making and communication, giving feedback on coach performance and respectful behavior.
  • According to the results, seventy-three percent of swimming coaches are in the capital of the province. However, the north and south of the area have a small share of swimming coaches. Therefore, to decentralize, it is suggested that more coaching classes be held in the north and south of the province to develop swimming coaches’ abilities.
  • According to the results, most swimming coaches have a degree in coaching. Therefore, it is suggested that second, first, international, and school coaching classes be held in the province.

Abstract (51 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (13 Downloads)   |   Highlights
In general, the study results showed that Taekwondo heroes’ awareness of the components of personal brand image is at a desired level. From the view of researchers and scholars, the features derived from the factors that make up a personal brand image are seen as a distinctive advantage for individuals to the extent that personal brand image is regarded as one of the bases and complement of the personal brand. What distinguishes an athlete from other individuals is the effect on the external image, so athletes need to know their features and distinctions and have a plan to enhance and develop their own brand. Undoubtedly, highlighting the advantages to others is one of the success factors in personal branding. Finally, careful consideration and understanding of moral and skill purchases and consulting with a sports marketing and branding specialists are among the suggestions that are offered to Taekwondo national players to form and develop a personalized brand image.

Abstract (41 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (12 Downloads)   |   Highlights

Applicable Remarks

According to the results of the present research, which showed that individual, psychological, structural, managerial, economic and attitudinal factors, media support, social support, cultural-religious barriers, the role of coach hindered the sport participation of women with physical-mobility disabilities, it seems that the authorities and administrators of the disabled people play the greatest role in the building culture and creating appropriate contexts for the growth and active sport participation of women with disabilities. By focusing on these barriers, the provincial sport committees can adopt programs that enable greater participation of women. Disability sport managers should adopt strategic policies to address these barriers. The Ministry of Sports and Youth can facilitate the barriers associated with a number of these factors by allocating sufficient funds and injecting them into provincial sport committees.

Abstract (56 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (11 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Applicable Remarks
Based on the present research findings, recommend that sports entrepreneurs, managers and owners of sports academies identify and utilize components of value proposition and customer segments to provide them with a variety of services for valuable sports enthusiasts. This will enable the fulfillment of a broader range of needs and wishes of target customers, and hence, the sports academies can have a competitive advantage, accompanied by profitability, more significant market share and ultimately further development. Attention to the above services, as well as identifying other services that can be offered, can lead to the growth and prosperity of sports academies. In addition to economic and financial development, this can significantly improve the health indicators in the country by attracting more people to sports and increasing health awareness.

Abstract (220 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (53 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • It is suggested that sports entrepreneurs take advantage of entrepreneurial features (such as risk-taking, innovation, personal motivation, etc.) and gain comparative advantage, increase their competitive edge and increase their successful presence in the bolder market.
  • It is suggested to provide the infrastructure and basic facilities needed by entrepreneurs from various government agencies and departments to make sports entrepreneurship more successful. In this context, revising, simplifying, and removing obsolete laws with the financial and moral support of the government can dramatically increase the success of entrepreneurs in sports entrepreneurship businesses.
  • It is suggested there be a center for entrepreneurs in the field of sports business to provide knowledge and training on how to succeed in entrepreneurship, introduce successful entrepreneurs and identify creative and innovative initiatives in this field. In this context, it is recommended that different workshops be held for potential entrepreneurs and young entrepreneurs, identifying the roots of entrepreneurial success, learning how to cope with failure, and empirical lessons learned from successes.

Abstract (189 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (48 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that managers and planners in the study area focus on several issues. The first is to remove sources of noise pollution in the study area and the second is to select alternative routes. It is also advisable to inform athletes and users through guides. Many athletes are unaware of the serious damage caused by noise pollution.

Abstract (64 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (33 Downloads)   |   Highlights


According to the results of this study, it is suggested to measure all aspects for selecting CEOs Futsal Clubs that help select a stable with minimal change management. Establish active committees in the clubs and/or work professionally on the proper setting up of the fan club and the like. Club managers take measures to attract technical coaches and players and, as a result, obtain desired national and international results, to enhance their position on geographical expansion criterion, which is one of the most important criteria of brand valuation. Club managers take a look at other factors in profitability of the club, and establish bases on the true value of television broadcasting, which falls within the remit of the Football Federation and the League Organization, a contract with real value broadcasting rights and determine the actual percentage of clubs. Club board of directors should be more sensitive about selecting a coach so that a dedicated coach can serve the club for many years.

Abstract (31 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (10 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Applicable Remarks
- The results of this research can be useful for the planning of the audiences of the study such as the Ministry of Sports, the National Olympic Committee, federations, boards, education and even professional clubs and even sponsors of sports communities.
- Considering that the population participating in the Olympic Games is of a specific age group, planning can focus on the age group and can be considered in future estimates.
- Given that this research uses a theoretical model (PEST+S) and a neural network model, sport policy makers in countries can use the identified indicators and components in their future planning using this research with a scientific approach to have a more fruitful participation in the Olympic Games.
Other practical results of the research can be to modify expectations and avoid frustration with sports fans concerning the existing potentials.

Abstract (88 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (18 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The results of the model used in this study suggest that there is a statistically significant level of home-field advantage for all major European leagues.
  • According to the results, the share of home-field advantage attributable to crowd support differs dramatically among divisions and for Serie A and Bundesliga crowd support does not even have any statistical effect on points earned at home.
  • These results show us that binary regression analysis can be used to determine the crowd effect in leagues with an average occupancy rate of 70% in football leagues.
  • In the present study, It has been determined that crowd support and crowd density are important variables that contribute to the home-field advantage in football.

Abstract (67 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (23 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Applicable Remarks
•      To improve Players performance, minimize injury risk and medical costs, coaches and trainers are recommended to implement FIFA 11+ and 11+ kids training programs at a pre-adolescent age.
•             Football Players should increase their awareness of injury prevention strategies and be familiar with FIFA warm-up programs more over learn to how perform each exercise with proper movement patterns.

Abstract (53 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (19 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • This is evident that the two-day plyometric and resistance training protocols in a week is useful for the university soccer-playing students’ in improving fitness level.
  • This is evident from the present study that resistance training protocol is more effective than plyometric training in enhancing selected fitness components i.e. leg strength, muscular strength endurance and agility.

Abstract (50 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (10 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• Developing a comprehensive plan for sports tourism in Mashhad
• Use of media and advertising interactions - One of the most important steps in the development of the sports tourism industry in the metropolitan area of Mashhad, is to introduce different opportunities, capabilities, attractions and possibilities of sports tourism in the city and province to the domestic and foreign visitors. The media are the benefactors of this movement by playing an influential role in the quantitative and qualitative developments in various aspects of life and in the development of communication from different aspects.
• Use of experts as well as cooperation of academics, elites, researchers and students in different areas of Mashhad sports tourism industry development
• Holding training classes and specialized conferences and seminars to promote the culture of sports tourism in the indigenous community based on domestic and foreign sports tourism.
• Investing through the private sector.
• Increasing recreational amenities and infrastructure facilities; strategies for developing sports tourism will require a balanced growth, that is, the increase in the number of sports tourists require increase in the infrastructure
• Investing in transportation and boosting in and out of city transportation.

Abstract (48 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (18 Downloads)   |   Highlights

Applicable Remarks

According to the results of this study, people are recommended to use endurance exercise training to improve cerebellum molecular disturbances in diabetic patients that may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategy for improvement of diabetes neuropathy.

Abstract (74 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (57 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The host city and country of mega-events depend on extensive media coverage to promote and amplify their image to attract tourists. The availably of sports infrastructure and a near-perfect event organization are essential targets to be included in the image promotion for host cities.
  • Other aspects not related to the sports events, such as the virus epidemic, political crisis, the wave of violence, strikes, natural disasters, can affect the tourism destination image, which is influenced directly by foreigners' intention to visit the country during the Olympic or Paralympic Games.
  • Mega-events promotes changes in the perceptual and cognitive process regarding the image of the nations as a tourism destination.

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