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Uncorrected proofs: articles that have been copy edited and formatted, but have not been finalized yet. They still need to be proof-read and corrected by the author(s) as well as by the managing editors and the text could still change before final publication.



Abstract (1157 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (858 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • To pay more attention to infrastructures and the construction of home stadiums, pay more attention to the quality of matches as the main product of football, strategic planning to attract and retain spectators and turning them into fanatic and loyal fans, providing desired services in stadiums, encouraging the atmosphere of stadiums free of immorality and aggression, paying close attention to the livelihood of spectators and fans, using media as a powerful tool to create the desired inclination, and influencing the attitude of spectators toward attending matches in stadiums were some essential measures suggested in most of the experts’ mental models.

Abstract (443 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (72 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Regarding the obtained results, HIIT can be used as a non-pharmacological treatment for glycemic control (glucose, insulin, and insulin resistance) and reduction of Dkk-1 (as an atherosclerotic index) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Abstract (679 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (186 Downloads)   |   Highlights

- Future orientations for sport tourism researches can be further focused on specific areas of tourism, such as free zones and eco-tourism.
- Given Iran's capacity in sport tourism, it is necessary to publish more research articles in reputable foreign publications.
- Collaborative and interdisciplinary researches with geography, environment and cultural heritage researchers can help to deepen and extend this scientific field.
- Researches can be generalized to other provinces whose potential is still unknown from this dimension.
- Directors of tourism in Iran can use sports and other attractions related to recreational activities for tourism development.

Abstract (362 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (101 Downloads)   |   Highlights

- Considering the positive effects of moral orientation and its components on the level of performance of wrestlers, the following items are suggested:
- Managers, officials, and planners in the field of wrestling are recommended to provide a comprehensive training program for the promotion of ethics among wrestlers of different types in order to enhance their moral behaviors under the light of this program and increase their performance more than ever.
- The goals in terms  of the tasks (i e, how to set down and combining the tasks, the short- and long-term goals, assign tasks to practice and work, and finally paying attention to individuals’ differences in doing task), self-confidence, commitment, and coping stresses Individually in precise planning and in combination with modern teaching methods. Also, introducing the ones with better deontological ethics as a tenet can be useful.
- Sports psychologists should be invited to the wrestling camps for training the skills of proper dealing with opponents, control emotions, and empowering the athletes and the way to nurture these skills by psychologists periodically be reviewed to provide the context  for increasing the performance of wrestlers. It is also recommended to make an educational video that covers all educational aspects (illustration, concentration, mental practice) using various visual techniques for wrestlers.

Abstract (305 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (81 Downloads)   |   Highlights

Since results showed that socio-cultural factor is one of factors that affect factor in the development of taekwondo in Iran, it is recommended that the officials of Taekwondo to promote socio-cultural factor such as positive changes in the views of the people towards Taekwondo through appropriate advertising and pay particular attention to Taekwondo in schools.
- Based on our study, technological factor is one of factors that affect factor in the development of taekwondo in Iran. Therefore, it is proposed to introduce strategies such as path the ways for equipping clubs, conducting training courses using foreign professors, using quality equipment for athletes, establishing knowledge management systems in the body of the Taekwondo Federation, and updating the topics of coaching courses.
- The results from our study suggested that economic factor is one of factors that affect factor in the development of taekwondo in Iran, solutions such as willingness to invest in the private sector for investment like granting bank facilities to invest in taekwondo must be applied. In addition, paying attention to the revenue from the sports clubs, encouraging and supporting the activity of taekwondo players, cooperation between the private sector and the government, and attracting sport tourists through Taekwondo can promote of taekwondo.
- Current study suggested that political factor is one of factors that affect factor in the development of taekwondo in Iran. Thus, it is proposed to create of supportive laws, establish television broadcasting rights, and develop of foreign investment support laws, increase of the share of Taekwondo budget from the total sport budget of the country and the increase of political relations with other countries.
- Present study showed that facilities and equipment factor is one of factors that affect factor in the development of taekwondo in Iran. Thus, it is necessary to use strategies such as proper management of sports spaces, the promotion of sports clubs to federations and boards, the proper management of gyms, attention to the revenues of the facilities available to the Iran Taekwondo federation and the clubs and the multifunctional use of sports spaces (competitions, training and talent identification) for promote facilities and equipment factor.

Abstract (32 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (9 Downloads)   |   Highlights
- Sports managers in the field of handball are advised to pay particular attention to the quantitative and qualitative promotion of all human factors. There is no doubt that great coaches, star players along with volunteers, loyal supporters and sponsors and utilizing the veterans' treasury can be effective in promoting the brand identity of Handball.
- The performance of the handball clubs can be monitored by citizens, in terms of technical performance, gaining club results, financial and even ethical performance. Therefore, in order to promote the brand identity of handball, all the three performance aspects needs to be considered.
- Nowadays, in order to be better seen and to strengthen its brand identity, every brand needs a close and continuous relationship with the media, and the brand identity of handball is no exception. Managers should consider broad and continuous ways of communicating with the media at the local, national and even international levels in their macro planning.

Abstract (216 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (32 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Concerning the results, it is suggested that, in order to reduce Plateauing and increase work motivation,
- Make the necessary adjustments between the field of study of the employees of the Department of Sports and Youth and the jobs of the organization;
- Designing jobs with new identities in sports organizations so that defined jobs become more attractive and increase the importance of the job from the perspective of the employee;
- If people with Plateauing, for any reason do not have the possibility of promotion in the Department of Sports and Youth, they are to be moved by considering equal jobs so as to decrease their uniformity and feeling of career plateauing;
- Make sure that job training (how to optimally do business, interact with clients, manage time, make good use of information technology, etc.) is made available to employees every six months to update their job knowledge.
- Intimate communication of supervisory section with employees and conversation about their job performance (to reduce organizational tension) must be done and managers of Departments of Sports and Youth must make enough effort to encourage employees to do workgroups and participate in workgroups through monthly and friendly meetings.

Abstract (21 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (6 Downloads)   |   Highlights
- It is suggested that sports entrepreneurs take advantage of entrepreneurial features (such as risk-taking, innovation, personal motivation, etc.) and gain comparative advantage, increase their competitive edge and increase their successful presence in the bolder market.
- It is suggested to provide the infrastructure and basic facilities needed by entrepreneurs from various government agencies and departments to make sports entrepreneurship more successful. In this context, revising, simplifying, and removing obsolete laws with the financial and moral support of the government can dramatically increase the success of entrepreneurs in sports entrepreneurship businesses.
- It is suggested there be a center for entrepreneurs in the field of sports business to provide knowledge and training on how to succeed in entrepreneurship, introduce successful entrepreneurs and identify creative and innovative initiatives in this field. In this context, it is recommended that different workshops be held for potential entrepreneurs and young entrepreneurs, identifying the roots of entrepreneurial success, learning how to cope with failure, and empirical lessons learned from successes.

Abstract (260 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (47 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • Our research shows that in the new era of Karate Kumite, it’s better for both athletes and coaches to focus on punching skills whether in attacks or in defense; however, having a good ability of kicking techniques would be a plus.

Abstract (175 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (44 Downloads)   |   Highlights
- It is suggested that specialized working groups be designed for appropriate executive and operational programs and predict financial, human and facility resources to implement it.
- The strategies to increasing the number and variety of community events and sports festivals, maximum use of available sports space and facilities and organizing regular leagues and domestic and provincial matches have been proposed to remove current condition of futsal in Sulaymaniyah province.
- The results of SWOT analysis show that weaknesses overcome strengths and opportunities over threats, so conservative strategies (Improve internal weaknesses by exploiting existing opportunities) should be used.

Abstract (27 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (5 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that managers and planners in the study area focus on several issues. The first is to remove sources of noise pollution in the study area and the second is to select alternative routes. It is also advisable to inform athletes and users through guides. Many athletes are unaware of the serious damage caused by noise pollution.

Abstract (266 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (79 Downloads)   |   Highlights
- According to the results of this study, people are recommended to use continuous exercise to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and delay cell aging.

Abstract (263 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (55 Downloads)   |   Highlights
- The Students’ Behavior Self-evaluation Scale has appropriate validity and reliability as well as high sensitivity and is suitable in a multicultural education context during Physical Education’s lesson.
- The Physical Education’s teachers can use the SBSS to evaluate the social skills of their students.

Abstract (110 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (22 Downloads)   |   Highlights


- Implementing advertising strategies that increase Spectators' involvement in the event.
- Allocating family-friendly venues that increase the likelihood of Spectators re-attendance to the event.
- Introducing fun programs for Spectators before the race begins.
- Increasing Spectators' knowledge of the horse industry (all types of competitions, breeds, job opportunities, etc.) through booklets or workshops for Spectators and the general public.
- Providing comprehensive information on all types of racing in the field during Horse Racing and creating a comprehensive website on Horse Racing in Gonbad Kavoos (information on spring and fall competitions, tournament history, tournament results, introduction of Horse Clubs, Introducing Famous Athletes in the Field)
- Considering a post-race time for Spectators to keep in touch with horse owners as well as the riders.
- Organizing social events before and during the tournament, such as honoring the oldest and youngest spectator of the week.
- Performing cultural and traditional events during these competitions such as Turkmen and Persian music to create a positive image of the event in the minds of the Spectators.

Abstract (202 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (55 Downloads)   |   Highlights
- Relevance of Videographic approach and kinematic software in tracing kinematic angles which were used for the combination of anthropometric variables in improving Nigerian female tennis performance.
- Determination of extent of relationship between kinematic and anthropometric variables of female tennis players using multiple linear regression analysis.

Abstract (119 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (33 Downloads)   |   Highlights
- TFF may set a budget share to be invested in the development of the youth academies as a compulsory requirement for all the Turkish clubs.
Unresolved Issues in Turkish Football 7
- Turkish clubs should modify their approach: they should nurture and develop home-grown players and buy young talent from peripheral leagues to develop and re-sell to the European big clubs rather than continuing to buy players in an advanced stage of their career.

Abstract (282 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (42 Downloads)   |   Highlights

The results of the present study confirm the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on the improvement of symptoms of athletes with Bulimia Nervosa; So:
  • It is recommended that this protocol can be used for athletes with eating disorders, especially Bulimia Nervosa, because of the effectiveness and stability of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.
  • The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS), along with a Semi-Structured Clinical Interview For DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) can be used in athletes to diagnose Bulimia Nervosa.

Abstract (150 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (28 Downloads)   |   Highlights


- Competing basketball players as other competing athletes show high level of cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety and self-confidence.

- Supplementation with a mixture of n-3 PUFAs and Schisandra chinensis extract plus vitamin D3, seem to have a positive impact and improve athletic performance.

Abstract (35 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (9 Downloads)   |   Highlights


- According to the results, talent management has a direct and indirect effect on job retention of swimming coaches. Therefore, it is recommended that managers and officials of the Swimming Federation increase job retention by providing appropriate areas of dynamics, growth, recognition and promotion among coaches.
- The results showed that quality of working life has a positive effect on job retention of swimming coaches. Therefore, managers can enhance the quality of working experience and subsequently the job retention of coaches by closing appropriate contracts, involving coaches in decision making and communication, giving feedback on coach performance and respectful behavior.
- According to the results, seventy-three percent of swimming coaches are in the capital of the province. However, the north and south of the area have a small share of swimming coaches. Therefore, to decentralize, it is suggested that more coaching classes be held in the north and south of the province to develop swimming coaches’ abilities.
- According to the results, most swimming coaches have a degree in coaching. Therefore, it is suggested that second, first, international, and school coaching classes be held in the province.

Abstract (33 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (10 Downloads)   |   Highlights


- The results found that students were satisfied with the blended program and online learning environments; satisfaction was generally high.
-Future research might also be conducted to determine students’ satisfaction levels, including theoretical and practical courses.
-It would be beneficial to replicate this study with a larger population sample in other faculties. Although this study endeavored to assess students’ blended learning satisfaction level in the school of Sports Sciences, the results of this study and the research that supports it provide a strong rationale for why including blended learning in sports school or higher education programs is essential.
-Focusing on high-quality lectures, improving the ability to use VLE (e-learning) and creating opportunities for students to develop their self-study could also help sports institutions to maintain high levels of student satisfaction on blended learning.

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