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  • The majority of the studies evaluating the efficacy of HRV measurements in athlete populations have focused on male endurance athletes.
  • This pilot study has identified that HRV can be sensitive enough to detect changes in elite female alpine racer’s training status, specifically in the areas functional overreach and recovery.


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  • Both aerobic and resistance training can similarly increase FNDC5 gene expression in the liver tissue, which could be an explanation for the way they play a role in the process of browning of white fat, therefore reducing the fat in the liver tissue and improving the condition.


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• Resistance training regardless of volume of training can improved serum insulin levels and insulin resistance index in both normal and insulin resistance conditions, and these improvements accompanied by decline of serum myonectin levels.
• It seems that improvement of metabolic condition would occur even by low volume of resistance training.


Abstract (1088 Views)   |   Full-Text (PDF) (9 Downloads)     |   Highlights
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• The results obtained in this study provide a clearer insight into inter-positional and intra-positional differences in somatotype categories of young female volleyball players:
a) The obtained intra-positional differences between less efficient and more efficient YFVP in proportions of each somatotype category indicate that with the increase of efficacy at all positions in volleyball a trend toward ectomorphy can be noticed.
b) Considering a high level of innateness of that somatotype component in the process of talent identification for volleyball, suitable body build should also be one of the important criteria.
c) In the training process great attention should also be paid to the reduction of subcutaneous fat tissue.
d) Small inter-positional differences in frequency of each somatotype category indicate a previous homogeneity of samples in terms of body build in the first phases of selection.
e) Therefore, in the selection process for specific positions body build should not be the primary selection criterion.
f) The middle hitter position is certainly the exception, which requires specific body build predominated by the ectomorph somatotype component as a necessary precondition for success.
• Using the results presented here, volleyball coaches will be able to better detect talents for volleyball, and also to assign the most appropriate player positions according to their body build.


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  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) resulted in an improvement in glucose level and insulin resistance in obese participants, and this improvement was accompanied by increased omentin-1 concentrations.
  • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed as a time-efficient exercise intervention that may bring about similar benefits to other type of exercise.


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  • Vitamin C supplementation can be prevented the increase in lactate levels and free radical production.
  • Supplementation with vitamin C  can be prevented the increase in free radical production.


Abstract (455 Views)   |   Full-Text (PDF) (19 Downloads)     |   Highlights

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  • Among factors to prevent obesity and related diseases such as diabetes and fatty liver, exercise training is a well-accepted as a viable option (6). However, due to the effect of exercise training on fat tissue and obesity, and reduction in adipokines associated with insulin resistance such as leptin, retinol-binding protein 4 (7), resistin and others, as well as increases in adiponectin levels with exercise training, study of the effects of exercise training on Nrg4 are warranted and could create a broad new approach in relation to the prevention of fatty liver, obesity and insulin resistance treatment.


Abstract (614 Views)   |   Full-Text (PDF) (15 Downloads)     |   Highlights

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  • The findings of maximum speed occurring first in rod translation, thereafter in rod rotation and finally in line hauling movement can be considered movement adaptations to optimize line speed and thereby distance and efficiency in fly casting.
  • These results support the principle that the rotation of the rod and the hauling of the line should occur relatively late in each cast sequence, i.e., after an initial translation of the rod in the movement direction.
  • The results also indicate that the coordination of rod and hauling movements should be adapted to line length, where increased rod and line hauling speed is used for longer lines.
  • In general, this suggests that casting movements need to be changeable and adjusted to current circumstances to optimize rod and line movements.



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