year 9, Issue 4 (Winter 2021)  

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Abstract (3264 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1943 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • It is suggested that Iran should have a say in sports like gymnastics, athletics, and swimming at the world level. This could be achieved when any involved organization pays special attention to sports. According to the results of this study, suggestions are made to pay more consideration to education and training, as well as to advance the situation in the country.
  • Due to the educational weakness dimension, it is recommended to use the word physical activity used in the content of preschool and primary school textbooks.
  • Concerning the lack of sports facilities and equipment, it is suggested that the country's schools be equipped with appropriate and quality sports facilities and equipment under sports and educational goals in different educational courses.
  • According to the educational weakness dimension, it is suggested to look at physical education and sports activities as an important course and also as a factor for the development and reduction of physical and mental illnesses in society.
  • Due to the lack of human resources, it is proposed that physical education graduates and coaches be employed to educate children in schools and colleges.
  • Owing to managerial weakness, it is suggested the scientific approaches, goals, and strategies in the field of physical education be determined and the priorities are evaluated by senior physical education directors.
  • Due to the lack of financial resources, it is recommended to prevent the uncontrolled expansion of school sports, especially those not applicable in schools or unsafe concerning students' health.
  • Based on the individual factors, it is advised that special sports facilities and equipment be provided for people with special physical conditions. They are treated like healthy people so that they also have the right to exercise and receive training.

Abstract (3079 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1144 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• The present findings indicate a lack of concussion knowledge among female MMA fighters competing in MMA.
• This is a concern as this group is at risk for head trauma.
• Coaches and organizations should consider implementing appropriate measures to make sure athletes have the appropriate information regarding concussion and head trauma.
• Present findings also include important information researchers should consider when doing a study during a competition.
• Researchers should get the coaches involved; a successful pre- and post-competition evaluation could depend on their involvement as well as on an international team of researchers with a varied linguistic background.

Abstract (4088 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1373 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• The findings reported in this study suggest the use of selected external stimuli during fitness testing for a more objective measurement of student performance and thus their motivation.
• The practitioner should build an environment in which subjects will be able to achieve their maximal performance.
• For NAS it is advisable to use verbal encouragement or performance feedback, and for PAS, a combination of external stimuli for selected fitness tests of explosive strength and speed abilities.

Abstract (6522 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1224 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• Considering the benefit of conducting meta-analysis by combining the results of multiple studies, it would be worthwhile to investigate the impact of leisure activities among different ethnic/cultural/gender groups to determine if the effect sizes are homogeneous.
• Additionally, the categorization or classification of preferred leisure activities can also be determined depending on different aspects of the group.
• Given our current study used depressive symptoms as a dependent variable, a future study may examine similar mental health outcomes including anxiety, distress, or sadness.
• The results of the present study may be applicable not only to older adults without disabilities but also to those who have specific disabilities (e.g., dementia, Alzheimer, or arthritis).
• A majority of older adults have limited access to leisure programs and are lacking social contacts outside their homes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it is important for health care and leisure professionals to develop preferred leisure activities that older adults can safely participate in during COVID-19 restrictions.

Abstract (2905 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1148 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • Adult women with low back pain during the current six months can use elastic bands for maintaining correct posture and developing body balance. They help increase spinal mobility and restore functional stability to the lumbar spine.

Abstract (3366 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1393 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• It also seems that based on the prioritization of strategies, the development of students' motor literacy and the promotion of a dynamic lifestyle should be considered as the main target of policymakers in physical education and sports in schools.

Abstract (1929 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (738 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • This study demonstrated the efficacy of implementing a psychological questionnaire aimed at determining the current and ongoing anxiety states, to predict plausible psycho-hormonal consequences on future sports performance. Measuring the innate anxiety states can provide valuable information on a player’s proneness for stress, not only at a psychological level but also as seen with cortisol surges, which can have detrimental performance effects.
  • A few limitations were however identified. Testing a larger population would prove valuable, not only for excluding outliers from slanting the statistics, but also to determine dissimilarities between starters, non-starters, positions, and duration of playtime and more profound correlations between variables. Furthermore, analyzing testosterone together with cortisol and the psychological questionnaires will provide valuable insights into the psycho-hormonal relationships that take place.

Abstract (2290 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1133 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• Implication for health policymakers / practice / research / medical education:
1) Balance is one of the main problems in the psychomotor development of people with Down syndrome, with few studies in the literature on the subject.
2) This study evaluates the balance of children with the Syndrome who practice dance and seeks to verify its effectiveness in forming the body scheme of these children.

Abstract (2410 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1090 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• For the COD performances of the athletes to emerge at a higher level, the basic movement profiles should be brought to the appropriate level.
• The result that athletes' COD performances are related to more complex abilities (which measure strength, balance, and mobility at the same time) reveals that not only on skill but also on features such as balance and strength, balance and explosive strength should be used at the same time.
• The fact that the in-line lunge movement, which is a more complex movement pattern, is associated with COD, reveals the result of the athletes applying strength and balance training suitable for the running type.
• The balance characteristics of the athletes should be developed following the movement patterns of the COD performances.

Abstract (2452 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (926 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The study offers, unlike other similar ones, the prevailing context diagram of the IDEF0 model for the implementation of the health care system for the formation of physical education among schoolchildren
  • Other studies may be devoted to the analysis of the main sports programs for the development of schoolchildren.
  • Other studies may include studies of the characteristics of physical education in a covid-19 setting.

Abstract (1664 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (582 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• This study implies that the use of specific exercises in physical education of university student can improve intermuscular coordination, statokinetic balance, body balance and cerebral hemodynamics. Thus, mental performance and resistance to exam stress are increased.

Abstract (2434 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (952 Downloads)   |   Highlights
• Sport and traditional games are recommended to be introduced within the educational process at the higher military educational establishments.
• In the field of professional military training, it is suggested that sport and traditional games should increase the emotional stability, positive views, and physical endurance of cadets.
• It is recommended for military pedagogues and faculty members to implement the model of usage of sport and traditional games at the higher military educational establishment.

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