year 8, Issue 3 (Autumn 2020)  

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Abstract (3719 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1195 Downloads)   |   Highlights


  • Implementing advertising strategies that increase Spectators' involvement in the event.
  • Allocating family-friendly venues that increase the likelihood of Spectators re-attendance to the event.
  • Introducing fun programs for Spectators before the race begins.
  • Increasing Spectators' knowledge of the horse industry (all types of competitions, breeds, job opportunities, etc.) through booklets or workshops for Spectators and the general public.
  • Providing comprehensive information on all types of racing in the field during Horse Racing and creating a comprehensive website on Horse Racing in Gonbad Kavoos (information on spring and fall competitions, tournament history, tournament results, the introduction of Horse Clubs, Introducing Famous Athletes in the Field)
  • Considering a post-race time for Spectators to keep in touch with horse owners as well as the riders.
  • Organizing social events before and during the tournament, such as honoring the oldest and youngest spectator of the week.
  • Performing cultural and traditional events during these competitions such as Turkmen and Persian music to create a positive image of the event in the minds of the Spectators.

Abstract (3663 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1961 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • It is suggested for Iran’s Ministry of Sports and Youth to coordinate with government and related organizations that are responsible for recruitment to apply knowledge-based, commitment, creative, and skilled human resources. The management team of this center, should design ways for training current employees to achieve national and international success.
  • The managers of the mentioned organization should try their best to create a suitable organization culture to achieve its long-term goals, mission, and scope.

Abstract (4075 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1494 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • According to the results, talent management has a direct and indirect effect on job retention of swimming coaches. Therefore, it is recommended that Downloaded from at 6:01 +0330 on Saturday, March 14th, 2020 8 Designing Job Retention Model among Swimming Coaches managers and officials of the Swimming Federation increase job retention by providing appropriate areas of dynamics, growth, recognition, and promotion among coaches.
  • The results showed that the quality of working life has a positive effect on job retention of swimming coaches. Therefore, managers can enhance the quality of working experience and subsequently the job retention of coaches by closing appropriate contracts, involving coaches in decision making and communication, giving feedback on coach performance and respectful behavior.
  • According to the results, seventy-three percent of swimming coaches are in the capital of the province. However, the north and south of the area have a small share of swimming coaches. Therefore, to decentralize, it is suggested that more coaching classes be held in the north and south of the province to develop swimming coaches’ abilities.
  • According to the results, most swimming coaches have a degree in coaching. Therefore, it is suggested that second, first, international, and school coaching classes be held in the province.

Abstract (4790 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1484 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • It is suggested that sports entrepreneurs take advantage of entrepreneurial features (such as risk-taking, innovation, personal motivation, etc.) and gain comparative advantage, increase their competitive edge and increase their successful presence in the bolder market.
  • It is suggested to provide the infrastructure and basic facilities needed by entrepreneurs from various government agencies and departments to make sports entrepreneurship more successful. In this context, revising, simplifying, and removing obsolete laws with the financial and moral support of the government can dramatically increase the success of entrepreneurs in sports entrepreneurship businesses.
  • It is suggested there be a center for entrepreneurs in the field of sports business to provide knowledge and training on how to succeed in entrepreneurship, introduce successful entrepreneurs and identify creative and innovative initiatives in this field. In this context, it is recommended that different workshops be held for potential entrepreneurs and young entrepreneurs, identifying the roots of entrepreneurial success, learning how to cope with failure, and empirical lessons learned from successes.

Abstract (3284 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1098 Downloads)   |   Highlights
Based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that managers and planners in the study area focus on several issues. The first is to remove sources of noise pollution in the study area and the second is to select alternative routes. It is also advisable to inform athletes and users through guides. Many athletes are unaware of the serious damage caused by noise pollution.

Abstract (3258 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1236 Downloads)   |   Highlights


According to the results of this study, it is suggested to measure all aspects for selecting CEOs Futsal Clubs that help select a stable with minimal change management. Establish active committees in the clubs and/or work professionally on the proper setting up of the fan club and the like. Club managers take measures to attract technical coaches and players and, as a result, obtain desired national and international results, to enhance their position on geographical expansion criterion, which is one of the most important criteria of brand valuation. Club managers take a look at other factors in profitability of the club, and establish bases on the true value of television broadcasting, which falls within the remit of the Football Federation and the League Organization, a contract with real value broadcasting rights and determine the actual percentage of clubs. Club board of directors should be more sensitive about selecting a coach so that a dedicated coach can serve the club for many years.

Abstract (5788 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (4174 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The results of the model used in this study suggest that there is a statistically significant level of home-field advantage for all major European leagues.
  • According to the results, the share of home-field advantage attributable to crowd support differs dramatically among divisions and for Serie A and Bundesliga crowd support does not even have any statistical effect on points earned at home.
  • These results show us that binary regression analysis can be used to determine the crowd effect in leagues with an average occupancy rate of 70% in football leagues.
  • In the present study, It has been determined that crowd support and crowd density are important variables that contribute to the home-field advantage in football.

Abstract (4596 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (4692 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • This is evident that the two-day plyometric and resistance training protocols in a week is useful for the university soccer-playing students’ in improving fitness level.
  • This is evident from the present study that resistance training protocol is more effective than plyometric training in enhancing selected fitness components i.e. leg strength, muscular strength endurance and agility.

Abstract (4887 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (1897 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • The host city and country of mega-events depend on extensive media coverage to promote and amplify their image to attract tourists. The availably of sports infrastructure and a near-perfect event organization are essential targets to be included in the image promotion for host cities.
  • Other aspects not related to the sports events, such as the virus epidemic, political crisis, the wave of violence, strikes, natural disasters, can affect the tourism destination image, which is influenced directly by foreigners' intention to visit the country during the Olympic or Paralympic Games.
  • Mega-events promotes changes in the perceptual and cognitive process regarding the image of the nations as a tourism destination.

Abstract (3445 Views) | Full-Text (PDF) (883 Downloads)   |   Highlights
  • Local governments have a responsibility to their citizens-taxers. Therefore, it is recommended for local governments to analyze spending for sports events in terms of transparency and accountability with similar studies.
  • Non-resident participants consider mass events as sports tourism activities. Therefore, local administrations can make an extra contribution to the local economy by promoting mass sports events in international markets in cooperation with tourism agencies.
  • Organizers need to set their priorities to determine prize money in the scope of elite athletes and recreational runners.
  • Local governments should continue to support mass sports events both as sponsors and organizers.

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